HISTORY OF HIGHER
EDUCATION OF WOMEN
IN THE SOUTH
PRIOR TO I860
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH
PRIOR TO 1860
HISTORY OF HIGHER
EDUCATION OF WOMEN
IN THE SOUTH
PRIOR TO i860
MRS. I. M. E. BLANDIN
NEW YORK AND WASHINGTON
THE NEALE PUBLISHING COMPANY
By The Neale Publishing Company
i SOUTHERN CIVILIZATION n
n SYSTEM OF SCHOOLS 16
ni URSULINE CONVENT, 1727 1908 ... 20
iv SALEM ACADEMY, WINSTON-SALEM, NORTH
CAROLINA, 1802 1908 31
v EARLY SCHOOLS IN ALABAMA ... . 56
vi ACADEMIES FOR GIRLS ...... 63
vn ACADEMIES IN AND AROUND TUSCALOOSA . 69
vin ACADEMIES CONTINUED 75
ix ALABAMA FEMALE INSTITUTE, TUSCALOOSA,
ALABAMA, 1833 1888 80
x MARION FEMALE SEMINARY, MARION, ALA-
BAMA, 1835 I 98 86
xi LIVINGSTON FEMALE ACADEMY, LIVING-
STON, ALABAMA, 1840 1908 .... 100
xii SOME OTHER INSTITUTES, SEMINARIES AND
xiii SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA .. 126
xiv FIRST SCHOOL IN GEORGIA FOR GIRLS . . 129
xv LAGRANGE FEMALE COLLEGE, LAGRANGE,
GEORGIA, 18331903 139
xvi EARLY SCHOOLS OF KENTUCKY . . . . 153
xvii EARLY SCHOOLS OF LOUISIANA . . . 161
xviii THE WOMAN'S COLLEGE, FREDERICK, MARY-
LAND, 1840 1908 172
xix FRANKLIN ACADEMY, COLUMBUS, MISSIS-
SIPPI, 1821 1908 185
xx SCHOOLS IN MISSOURI. MARY INSTITUTE,
ST. Louis, MISSOURI, 1859 1908 . . 204
xxi EARLY SCHOOLS IN NORTH CAROLINA . . 217
xxii EDGEWORTH FEMALE SEMINARY, GREENS-
BORO, NORTH CAROLINA, 1840 1871 . . 232
xxiii EARLY SCHOOLS IN SOUTH CAROLINA . . 251
xxiv FIRST ACADEMIES IN TENNESSEE . . . 273
xxv INSTITUTES AND COLLEGES. COLUMBIA IN-
STITUTE, COLUMBIA, TENNESSEE, 1836
xxvi EARLY SCHOOLS IN TEXAS 296
xxvii EARLY SCHOOLS IN VIRGINIA . . . .310
COLLEGES and universities were provided for the
training and culture of men long centuries before such
opportunities were accorded to women ; but at last men
began to realize the truth of the sentiment expressed
in one of the earliest acts of the legislative council of
the Territory of Orleans, " that the prosperity of every
State depends greatly on the education of the female
sex, in so much that the dignity of their condition is
the strongest characteristic which distinguishes civil-
ized from savage society." However, some sections
of our country were slow to recognize this truth, and
the first half of the nineteenth century was well-nigh
passed before girls were allowed to attend any but the
" common or district school," and the expression of a
desire to learn Latin or higher mathematics was con-
sidered an evidence of unsound mind.
Finally, women demanded a recognition of their
right to educational advantages equal to those pro-
vided for men. In some States women canvassed the
country to arouse interest in the education of women,
and to collect money to establish schools for women of
a higher grade than the common school. Indeed,
" they fought for every step of the way toward the
recognition of their right to educational advantages
equal to those provided for men."
Such, however, was never the case at the South;
for in every part of the South, from its earliest settle-
ment, men recognized their obligations to their
daughters as well as to their sons, and schools for
girls were established all over the South as soon as
conditions would warrant their maintenance.
Well aware of the fact that the simple assertion of
this truth can be doubted, is doubted, and oftentimes
denied, the author has undertaken the task of collect-
ing the strongest proof that can be offered that con-
tained in the acts of the legislatures of the States, in
catalogues of the schools, in data preserved in libraries
of historical associations, and in letters written by
people connected with such schools. The facts thus
obtained are presented in the sketches of the different
schools, and enough facts from every section of the
South have been gathered to show that the interest in
the education of women was not confined to any
locality or State but was widespread.
The author returns thanks to all who answered let-
ters of inquiry or in any way assisted her; especially
to Messrs. R. E. Steiner, Jr., and Flowers Steiner of
Montgomery, Alabama, and to Mr. W. C. Richardson
of Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Also to Miss Courtney Hol-
lins of Nashville, Tennessee, for valuable assistance in
securing data for Nashville Academy.
The author fully appreciates the value of the great
advantages enjoyed by Southern women as a free-will
offering, and deems it an act of justice only that the
record of such nobility of character should be made
available for reference and put in a more durable form
than it has been heretofore.
History of Higher Education of
Women in the South
SINCE the South was largely settled by colonists
from continental Europe, and for more than a century
these colonies were under European dominion, it be-
comes necessary, in order to present a truthful and in-
telligent view of Southern life, its customs, manners,
trend of thought, or the educational ideas and methods,
to consider European civilization and the agents by
which it was evolved from the chaos that ensued on the
dissolution of the Roman Empire.
This civilization presents a marked contrast to the
civilization of antiquity; the latter were characterized
by remarkable unity; they seemed the result of some
one fact, the expression of some one idea; whereas,
the civilization of modern Europe is diversified, con-
fused, stormy. " All the principles of social organiza-
tion are found existing together within it: powers
temporal, powers spiritual, the theocratic, monarchic,
aristocratic, and democratic elements, all classes of so-
ciety, all social situations are jumbled together and
visible within it; as well as infinite gradations of lib-
erty, wealth, and influence." ("Guizot's History of
Civilization," pp. 37-41.)
These various elements were in a constant struggle
among themselves, but their inability to exterminate
one another compelled them to enter into a sort of
mutual understanding. This understanding was
brought about by a new division of property which,
together with the maxims and manners to which it
12 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
gave rise, introduced a species of government formerly
unknown, which attempted to establish a federative
system. This peculiar system is now distinguished
as the Feudal System. " It rested upon the same prin-
ciples as those on which is based the federative system
of the United States. This system gave birth to ele-
vated ideas and feelings in the mind, to moral wants,
to grand developments of character and passion. It
jealously guarded individual rights, especially those of
landed proprietors, fostered the family spirit, and made
known the importance of women and the value of wife
Though these feudal lords were almost always en-
gaged in war, yet a " crowd of noble sentiments, of
splendid achievements, and beautiful developments of
humanity were evidently germinated in the bosom of
the feudal life." (" Guizot's History of Civilization,"
pp. 98, 99, 100.)
However, the real dawning of the morning that suc-
ceeded the long night was the inauguration of the
Crusades. These were the first common enterprise in
which the European nations ever engaged the first
European event. The Crusaders returned with much
information, enlarged views and new ideas; their
prejudices were removed, their manners, tastes, and
amusements more refined.
The same spirit that had induced so many gentlemen
to take arms in defense of the oppressed pilgrims in
the Holy Land incited others to declare themselves the
patrons and avengers of injured innocence at home.
Thus arose that peculiar institution chivalry whose
characteristic qualities were valor, humanity, courtesy,
justice, honor. Its effects were not confined to the
knightly class, but showed themselves in other ranks
of society. More gentle and polished manners were
introduced when courtesy was recommended as the
most amiable of knightly virtues; women were treated
with deference and respect, and their status in society
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 13
A scrupulous adherence to truth, with the most
religious attention to the fulfillment of every engage-
ment, became the distinguishing characteristic of a
gentleman, because chivalry was regarded as the school
of honor, and inculcated the most delicate sensibility
with respect to these points.
The impetus given to commerce by the Crusades en-
abled the seaport cities to amass great wealth and
caused others to spring into existence. This wealth
enabled them to acquire liberty, and with it such
privileges as rendered them respectable and independ-
ent communities. Thus in every State was formed
a new order of citizens, to whom commerce presented
itself as their proper object, and opened to them a
certain path to wealth and distinction.
The church, through all these changes, possessed
a definite form, activity and strength; she had move-
ment and order, energy and system, and the promises
that address themselves to the hopes of humanity re-
specting the future. The church has given to the de-
velopment of the human mind an extent and variety
never possessed elsewhere. Her great error was the
denial of the rights of the individual the claim of
transmitting faith from the highest authority down-
ward, throughout the whole religious body, without
allowing to any one the right of examining the grounds
of faith for himself. This encroachment on the rights
and liberty of individuals was not allowed to continue
without a challenge, and the vast effort made by the
human mind to achieve its freedom is known as the
Reformation. If it did not accomplish a complete
emancipation of the human mind, it procured a new
and great increase of liberty.
Through these agencies, at the dawn of the seven-
teenth century European civilization possessed broader
and more enlightened views, greater political freedom,
more refined manners, and greater religious liberty
than ever before; but the war between advanced re-
publican ideas of government and the doctrine of the
14 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
divine right of kings and the claim to extensive prerog-
atives must yet be fought, and the world had not yet
learned religious toleration.
The political and religious upheavals that resulted
from the promulgation of these doctrines sent thou-
sands of the best citizens of Europe to the wilderness
of America. These people were not serfs nor peas-
ants, but intelligent men of the middle class, and men
of culture in whose veins coursed the best blood of
Europe. Many of them found the way to the South-
ern States, where they established a civilization that
possessed many of the best features of feudalism and
chivalry. In North Carolina the Scotch, Irish, and
Moravians made large settlements; the Huguenots
found homes in South Carolina, and many Scotch and
English settled in Georgia.
To avoid the consequence of the dispute between
England and her American colonies, many of the best
and most intelligent citizens of Virginia, the Carolinas,
and Georgia sought homes in the Southwest, where
they established communities distinguished for thrift
and the observance of law and order.
" A company of immigrants from New Jersey made
a settlement on the Homochitto River, now known as
Kingston, Mississippi. This settlement begun by men
of intelligence, energy, and high moral character, be-
came prosperous and rich, densely populated, highly
cultivated, distinguished for its churches and schools,
its hospitality and refinement, and in the course of
years it sent its thrifty colonies into many counties,
carrying with them the characteristics of the parent
hive." (" Claiborne's Mississippi," pp. 102-107.)
The same author says : " The Natchez district was
proverbial for its immunity from crime and criminals,
though remote from the provincial government at
Pensacola and no court of record nearer. There is no
British record of judicial proceedings in the Natchez
district, and as there was considerable wealth in land,
slaves, cattle, and merchandise the good order that
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 15
prevailed must be ascribed to the superior character of
the early immigrants. The intelligent and cultivated
class predominated and gave tone to the community."
Similar testimonies as to the character of many
other settlements could be adduced. These testimonies
were made by the historians of those times, men unin-
fluenced by sectional feeling or prejudice, and they
warrant the assertion that a large proportion of the
early settlers of the Southern States were men of in-
telligence and moral worth, law-abiding citizens.
16 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
System of Schools
THE Southern people fully recognized the impor-
tance of education, and according to their ideas made
generous provision for schools. The following ex-
tract from a speech by Dr. J. L. M. Curry confirms
this statement: "In 1860 the North had a popula-
tion of 19,000,000 whites, 205 colleges, 1,407 profes-
sors, 29,044 students. In the same year, the South
had a population of 8,000,000 white, 262 colleges,
1,488 professors, 37,055 students. During the same
year the North expended on colleges $514,688, the
South $1,622,419." (Birmingham, Alabama, Age-
In 1617 Virginia began to work out a plan for the
education of the " People of the Plantation," which
culminated in the establishment of William and Mary
College and provided for schools to be correlated with
this institution of higher learning. This " University
System " that is, an institution of higher learning in
each State and at least one academy in each county
was adopted by each of the Southern States. These
academies were maintained in part by grants of land
in Kentucky and Tennessee; by legislative appropria-
tions in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi. (" Boone's His-
tory of Education in the United States," pp. 86-87.)
In Alabama the revenues from toll bridges, escheated
property, and a certain percentage of the dividend of
State banks were appropriated to the maintenance of
Every Southern State made provision for common
schools. The first constitution of Georgia made pro-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 17
vision for a general common-school education. (Con-
stitution of 1777, Art. 8.) In 1821 the Legislature of
Georgia appropriated $250,000 for common schools.
Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, Louisi-
ana, Mississippi, and Tennessee each spent annually
on common schools from one-fourth to three-fourths
of a million dollars. ("Boone's History of Educa-
tion in the United States," pp. 348, 349.) The com-
mon-school fund was increased by the establishment
of a " literary fund " by legislative enactment in Vir-
ginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. These
funds were augmented from time to time from vari-
In 1806 Tennessee granted 100,000 acres of land to
academies and colleges, and one-thirtieth of the re-
maining unoccupied territory to common schools. In
1821 Kentucky and Louisiana made large grants of
land to these schools. In the former one-half the net
profits of the Bank of the Commonwealth were made
a " literary fund " to be distributed annually for main-
tenance of common schools.
In 1837 Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Missouri,
North Carolina, and South Carolina applied the
whole of their shares of the surplus revenue to the
maintenance of common schools in the respective
States. ("Boone's History of Education in the
United States," pp. 86, 87, 91.) This alone aggre-
gated three and a half millions. Alabama and
Mississippi were organized on the " sixteenth plan " ;
that is, every sixteenth section of land must be appro-
priated to the support of common schools. This fund
in some sections was sufficient to maintain good schools
and provide free text-books. The proceeds of the sale
of these lands form the basis of the school fund of
It was estimated in 1855 (See DeBow's Review,
Vol. XVIII, p. 664) that for many years prior to 1860
the South paid annually five million dollars to the
North for books and instruction.
IB HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
In addition to what the State appropriated for edu-
cational purposes, much was done by private enterprise
and denominational zeal. As early as 1655 Captain
John Moon bequeathed a sum of money for the sup-
port of a free school in Isle of Wight County in Vir-
ginia. Two years later Mr. King bequeathed one
hundred acres of land to the same county for the
same purpose. (Isle of Wight Records.)
The prevailing sentiment at the South opposed
secular education and favored church schools; there-
fore the control of the academies soon passed from
the State to the various denominations, and many
seminaries and institutes were established by different
The Southern people were also opposed to co-educa-
tion, hence girls were not admitted to the academies
and colleges ; but they were not neglected. At a very
early period schools, seminaries, and institutes the
last two, colleges in all but name were established
especially for them.
The criticism is sometimes made that these schools
sink into insignificance when compared with the col-
leges for women of the present day. The same might
be said of the schools for men the high schools and
colleges of the present day are far in advance of any
colleges fifty years ago. However, the principal dif-
ference between the colleges for men and women fifty
years ago was substitution of French for Greek and the
addition of music and art to the curriculum of the col-
leges for women. Judged by the test that has been
applied for two thousand years, " By their fruits shall
ye know them," these colleges were excellent schools.
The women who were trained in them acquitted them-
selves admirably in every station of life, from the
highest to the most ordinary vocations of women.
They have commanded the admiration of cultured peo-
ple at home and abroad, by their intelligence, their
accomplishments, and refined and gentle manners.
When/ the antecedents of the Southern colonists
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 19
and the character of the colonists themselves are con-
sidered it is not strange that in the South was estab-
lished the first school in the United States, the second
oldest school for girls on the continent of America,
the Ursuline Convent in New Orleans.
20 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Ursuline Convent, 1727-1908
LA SALLE'S scheme of planting a colony in Louisi-
ana, and others along the Mississippi River until the
Great Lakes were reached, thus making an empire
worthy of the " Grand Monarch/' filled all France,
from court to peasantry, with enthusiasm, but his
failure and the stirring events nearer home that de-
manded immediate attention prevented the prosecution
of this scheme. After the peace of Ryswick the all-
important consideration was to take possession of the
valley of the Mississippi before the English claimed
it. Accordingly, plans for colonization were vigor-
ously prosecuted. In January, 1699, Fort Maurepas
was built on the Back Bay of Biloxi, where Ocean
Springs now is, and the first settlement in Louisiana
After more than twenty-seven years of labor and
toil Louisiana consisted of the following settlements:
New Orleans and the plantations in its vicinity, Fort
Rosalie (now Natchez), and Fort Maurepas in Mis-
sissippi; Mobile and Fort Tombecbe and Fort Tou-
louse in Alabama.
The Spaniards claimed Florida, where they had
made two settlements St. Augustine and Pensacola.
The English had settled three Southern colonies
Maryland, Virginia, and Carolina ; the last colony was
not divided into North and South Carolina until 1729.
Thus what is now the Southern States was still in
possession of the red man until the eighteenth cen-
tury had well-nigh passed.
After the death of Iberville, Bienville was made
Governor of Louisiana. He fully realized that 'in or-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 21
der to insure the prosperity of the colony the colonists
must be self-sustaining and self-reliant. They must
become Americans, not continue to be Frenchmen
living in America. He fully realized this would never
be accomplished as long as the children were sent to
France to be educated. Hence he urged the home
government to establish a college in Louisiana. The
government refused on the ground that Louisiana was
not populous enough to warrant the expense.
Governor Bienville then attempted to obtain the
services of some of the " Soeurs Crises " to teach the
girls of the colony. This plan proved impracticable;
but Bienville, undaunted by his failures, next applied
to Father Beaubois, a Superior of the Jesuits who had
recently come to evangelize the outlying districts of
Orleans Island and the Indian tribes of the Territory.
Father Beaubois suggested the Ursulines of Rouen
as likely to be able to supply teachers.
Application was made to them immediately. Father
Beaubois, acting under the authority of Mgr. Jean de
la Croix de St. Valier, Bishop of Quebec, negotiated
with the Company of the Indies, which agreed to main-
tain six nuns, to pay their passage, and that of four ser-
vants to serve them during their voyage, and, further,
to pay the passage of those who might wish for any
motive to return to France.
It was agreed that one of the nuns should be house-
keeper of the hospital and should occupy herself with
all the temporal concerns ; that two others should con-
tinually be at the service of the sick ; that there should
be one for the school for the poor, and another should
serve as substitute to any of the others in case of
sickness or the like. When the nuns might do so ad-
vantageously, they were to take, if they thought proper,
On the 1 2th of January, 1727, all the nuns destined
for the Louisiana monastery assembled in the infirm-
ary of the Ursuline Convent in Rouen to meet for
the first time the superior, Mother Maria Tranchepain
23 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
de St. Augustine, who had been set over the new es-
tablishment by the Bishop of Quebec, in whose diocese
Louisiana then was. The names of the first sisters
were: Soeur Marguerite de St. Jean 1'Evangeliste,
professe de la Communeaute de Rouen; Soeur Mari-
anne Boulanger de St. Angelique de Rouen; Soeur
Magdeleine de Mahieu de St. Francis de Xavier, pro-
fesse de la Communeaute du Havre; Soeur Renee
Guiquel de Ste. Marie, professe de Vannes; Soeur
Marguerite de Salaon de Ste. Therese de Ploermel;
Soeur Cecile Cavalier de Ste. Joseph, professe de la
Communeaute d'Elbouf ; Soeur Marianne Daiu de Ste.
Marthe, professe de la Communeaute de Hennebon;
Soeur Marie Hochard de St. Stanislas, novice; Soeur
Claude MafTy, seculiere de Choeur; Soeur Anne, se-
culiere converse. These sisters were accompanied to
New Orleans by Fathers Tartarin and Doutrebleau,
very worthy missionaries of the Society of Jesus.
On the 22d of February, 1727, they embarked on
the Gironde at Port 1'Orient, but contrary winds de-
tained them in the harbor until the following day.
The mother superior describes the passage as most
perilous, and we can well believe her statement, for it
was not until the 7th of August that they reached New
Orleans. Some distance below the city they left the
ship and entered small craft, to hasten up the river,
and thus an opportunity was given for that hospitable
reception thus recorded by the superior : " When we
were 8 or 10 leagues from New Orleans we com-
menced to meet habitations. There was no one but
stopped us to make us enter his house, and everywhere
we were received with a joy beyond all expression.
On every side they promised us boarding pupils, and
some wished to give them to us already." She con-
tinues : " The inhabitants of New Orleans wish that
we should lack nothing; they vie with one another in
hospitality toward us. This generosity charges us
with obligation to almost everybody. Among our
most devoted friends are M. le Commandant and his
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 23
lady, who are persons full of merit, and their society
is very agreeable."
The welcome given by Father Beaubois and the re-
ception of the nuns is thus described in the " Ursu-
lines in Louisiana " (p. 12) :
" The delight of Father Beaubois on the arrival of
the nuns, whom he had given up as lost, cannot be de-
scribed. When the first greetings were over he con-
ducted them to the poor church, to thank God for
having rescued them from the dangers of the deep,
and thence to his own house, where they sat down to a
comfortable breakfast at u o'clock. Whether they
walked processionally or were conveyed in the car-
riages of the commandant does not appear. But,
breakfast over, they were anxious to be conducted, as
soon as convenient, to their own house. The monas-
tery the Company of the Indies was building was far
from completion, but the best house in the colony,
Bienville's country house, was offered for their tem-
porary abode. This, then, into which they entered
on the evening of August 7, 1727, was the first con-
vent on the delta of the Mississippi, the oldest, indeed,
from St. Lawrence to the Gulf, by some seventy years.
It was situated in the square now bounded by Bien-
ville, Chartres, Douane (custom-house), and Decatur
streets. It was two stories high; the flat roof could
be used as a belvedere or gallery. Six doors gave
air and entrance to the apartments of the ground floor.
There were many windows, but instead of glass the
sashes were covered with fine, thin linen, which let
in as much light as glass and more air. The ground
about the house was cleared : it had a garden in front
and a poultry yard in the rear, but the whole estab-
lishment was in the depth of the forest; the streets,
marked by the surveyor some years before, had not
yet been cut through as far as Bienville street, on
which the nuns' garden opened: on all sides were
forest trees of prodigious height and size. From the
roof the nuns could look abroad on a scene of weird
24 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
and solemn splendor. The surrounding wilderness,
with its spreading live oaks and ghastly cypresses,
cut up by glassy, meandering bayous, was the refuge
and home of reptiles, wild beasts, vultures, herons, and
many wondrous specimens of the fauna of Louisiana."
Almost immediately our good nuns began to teach
the children, to instruct the Indian and the negro
races, and to care for the sick. The Governor wished
them to add a Magdalen asylum to their good works;
but it is doubtful if they were able to undertake this
work of mercy for the abandoned women of the col-
ony. They received under their protection the or-
phans of the Frenchmen recently massacred by the
Natchez, and the " filles-a-la-cassete " (girls with
trunks or caskets), several installments of whom the
King sent out as wives for his soldiers. And later
these good nuns received large numbers of the exiled
Acadians. ("Ursulines in Louisiana," p. 13.)
The instruction of the children was allotted to
Soeur Madeleine Mahieu de St. Francis Xavier. She
was the first woman engaged in the systematic in-
struction of girls in the colony, and the first of the
company of nuns to be called to her reward (July 6.
1728). In a circular letter issued in her honor the
mother superior makes the following statement : " She
solicited me many times that she might have the care
of instructing savages and negresses, but that being
already promised to another sister I granted her the
instruction of the day pupils (externes). She took
delight in them, and nothing contented her more than
to see their number increase, and the more ignorant
these children were the more devoted she was to
The boarding department was under the supervision
of Soeur Marguerite Judde. She died on the I4th of
August, 1731, and she is thus characterized by the
superior : " Her love for poverty was so great that she
never wished to keep for herself any of the boarding
money, or the payments parents made her." (" Tran-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 25
chepain de St. Augustine," p. 43.) Some idea of the
extent of her duties may be gained from the statement
in May, 1728, less than a year after the arrival of the
Ursulines, the nuns had twenty boarders, among them
girls of fifteen who never had heard mass and whom
they took great pains to instruct, that when they went
home they might establish religion in their families.
("Ursulines in Louisiana," p. 12.)
The nuns were first domiciled in Bienville's country
house, but they did not remain there long. The fol-
lowing account of their change of location is given in
" Ursulines in Louisiana " (p. 14) :
" Tradition asserts that the nuns did not remain
long in Bienville's house. A plantation and some
slaves had been given to them by the Indian Com-
pany, to which they removed, probably, as soon as
they were able to erect a temporary dwelling. Bien-
ville's house, though the largest in the colony, soon
became too small for the numbers placed under their
charge. Not a stone upon a stone remains of these
two oldest convents on the delta. The first fell a
prey to a conflagration which spread from the house
of a Spaniard on Good Friday, 1788, to nearly 900
houses, leaving thousands homeless. What the second
was like it has not been possible to ascertain, but its
site was on a short street, flanked by cotton presses, and
opening on the levee, called Nun street, in commem-
oration of the nuns who once prayed and taught within
its limits. A long, straggling street, thickly fringed
with very unpretentious houses, runs through the old
Ursuline plantation, and recalls its ancient owners
by its title, Religious street. Time has not left the
slightest vestige of these old monasteries or the
fine old trees and well-kept gardens that surrounded
The third convent of Louisiana stands quite within
the ancient city limits of the capital, on the square
bounded by Chartres, Ursuline, Hospital, and Old
Levee streets, on a line with the first, Bienville's
26 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
house, but at the opposite end of the city. It was be-
gun in 1727 and finished in 1734, and is to-day the
oldest house in the Mississippi Valley, and perhaps the
strongest. Built of the very best materials, in the Tus-
can composite style, its walls are several feet thick;
the beams and rafters, which the saw never touched,
seem as strong as when they left the forest ; the shut-
ters are of iron, and the bolts and bars and hinges are
not surpassed for size and strength by those of any
prison. The builders made it strong enough to stand
a siege, for in those days an attack from the Indians
or the English was by no means improbable.
The Ursulines made another removal in 1824. In
1831 their old convent became, for a brief time, the
statehouse, and in 1834 was granted by them for the
perpetual use of the archbishop, and since that time
it has been his seat. (Cable, " The Creoles of Louisi-
The writer of " The Ursulines in Louisiana " con-
cludes the narrative as follows :
" From the beginning the Ursulines were treated
with the greatest kindness by the mother country and
the colonists, and their wants were most liberally sup-
plied. In 1740 they figure in the budget of the colony
for 12,000 livres for the support of twelve religious
and their orphans. Most of the ladies of the colony
were educated at the Ursuline Convent (few went to
Europe to be educated after its establishment), and
their domestic virtues have won the warmest en-
comiums. As daughters, wives, and mothers the Cre-
oles did honor to their rearing. Their sweetness, mod-
esty, grace, and industry were appreciated by the
strangers who came hither to govern their country
and had seen all of grace and beauty that Europe could
show. To these matrons of Gallic blood the modesty
and charm of maidenhood seemed to cling ; and their
daughters were not unworthy of such mothers. Most
of the Governors who came to the colony bore off
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 27
" The Ursuline schools always maintained a high de-
gree of excellence. It is uncertain whether the schools
of Boston, New York, or Philadelphia of those days
were nearly so well provided with educational facili-
ties as New Orleans while under the sway of France
and Spain. Indeed, in sending out teachers these coun-
tries gave the colony of their best. I have read with
delight the letters of the first mother superior of the
Ursulines, and those of her young disciple, Madeleine
Hachard, and can testify that these ladies wrote their
native language with a grace and elegance which few
of the ' teachers ' who expatiate on the ' benighted '
times of old can equal. And no better evidence of
the scholarship of the first teachers that enlightened the
youth of Louisiana, and ameliorated the lot of the
savage and the slave, by teaching them of a heaven
prepared for them, of a Father who loves them, of
a Saviour who redeemed them, rescuing them from
the bondage of Satan, and imparting to them, for
Christ's sake, that blessed freedom wherewith He
hath made them free, can be found than the characters
of the pupils trained in the Ursuline Convent."
When Louisiana was transferred from the dominion
of France to that of Spain the Ursulines were much
disturbed and very apprehensive as to their future.
The Spanish Governor hastened to allay these fears,
and pledged the protection and favor of the govern-
ment. ' You will assist the government in laboring
for the preservation of morals, and the government
will uphold you." When Louisiana became a part of
the United States the Ursulines were much alarmed
lest a Protestant government, one supposedly hostile
and intolerant toward Catholics, would close their
house. This transfer necessitated a change in church
jurisdiction. Louisiana was transferred from the ju-
risdiction of the Bishop of Cuba to that of the Bishop
of Maryland, Rev. John Carroll.
The superioress wrote to Bishop Carroll, stating
her apprehensions. Bishop Carroll sent the letter to
28 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
President Jefferson, who answered it with the fol-
"Washington, May 15, 1804.
"To the Sister Therese de St. Xavier Farjon, Su-
perioress, and to Nuns of the Order of St. Ursula
at New Orleans :
" I have received, Holy Sisters, the letter you have
written me, wherein you express anxiety for the prop-
erty invested in your Institution by the former Govern-
ment of Louisiana. The principles of the Constitution
and Government of the United States are a sure guar-
antee that it will be preserved to you sacred and in-
violate, and that your Institution will be permitted to
govern itself according to its own voluntary rules,
without any interference from the civil authority.
" Whatever diversity of shade may appear in the re-
ligious opinions of our fellow-citizens, the charitable
objects of your Institution cannot be indifferent to
any: and its furtherance of the wholesome purpose
of society, by training up its younger members in the
way they should go, cannot fail to insure it the pat-
ronage of the government it is under. Be assured it
will meet with all the protection which my office can
" I salute you, Holy Sisters, with friendship and re-
" THOMAS JEFFERSON."
This autograph letter and one from President Madi-
son, and many interesting documents, are carefully
preserved in the archives of the Convent. In 1803
the number of Sisters was 1 1 and the number of board-
ing pupils 170.
After remaining in their third home, the Arch-
bishop's palace, for 100 years, the Ursulines removed
in 1824 to their present location. This convent is
situated on an extensive plantation about two miles
below New Orleans. The establishment is so very
large that many have affirmed that had they not visited
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 29
it they could not have formed a just estimate of its
vastness, or of the various advantages it possesses for
The main building and each of the two wings in
the rear are laid off into three stories, two of which
are surrounded by broad galleries, where the pupils
can take out-door exercise when the weather does not
permit of recreation in the play-grounds or in the park.
The lawn is bordered with beautiful crape myrtle,
and the park is shaded by majestic pecan trees, over
a century old. In front of the main building is a
flower garden, and farther on, to the right and left,
is an orange grove. A variety of other fruit and
shade trees are also on the grounds. The milk and
vegetables, etc., consumed in the establishment, being
produced on the plantation, it is found easy to supply
the pupils with an abundance of wholesome food.
The various apartments are spacious, well venti-
lated, and commodious, and great attention is paid to
the rules of hygiene. It is a fact worthy of note that
even during the terrible epidemic of 1878 there
was not a single case of yellow fever within the
A suite of bathing rooms, twenty-five in number,
is attached to the establishment. Each room is pri-
vate, and is furnished with an abundant supply of hot
and cold water.
The program of studies in this institution has
been modified as often as required, to correspond to
the progress of the times and the demand of society.
At present it embraces French and English grammar,
rhetoric, literature, logic, ancient and modern history,
geography, astronomy, arithmetic, algebra, geometry,
trigonometry, book-keeping, physics, botany, geology,
physiology and chemistry. Lessons in penmanship,
reading and elocution are daily given.
The Academy possesses a library containing over
four thousand volumes, philosophical and chemical
apparatus, a telescope, a large assortment of the most
30 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
improved globes and maps, and a fine collection of
The musical and art departments are well equipped
and under competent supervision.
Equal attention is paid to the French and English
languages, both being taught by theory and practice.
The recreation hours are alternately superintended
by American and French " religious " ; and during
these hours the pupils are required to converse in the
language of the sister who presides. Consequently,
the young ladies who observe this point of their rule,
and follow the course of grammar and literature
adopted in the establishment, acquire a thorough
knowledge of both languages, and speak them with
fluency and elegance.
The old-fashioned custom of training girls in cor-
rect and polite behavior still prevails in this estab-
lishment. Wreaths and gold and silver medals are
awarded for polite and amiable conduct and neatness.
On April 24, 1900, about one hundred ladies, in-
cluding representatives from the graduating classes
as far back as 1835, 1847, 1850, etc., assembled in
the chapel of the convent to organize an alumnae
association. The meeting was opened with prayer by
the Rev. Father Denoyal, chaplain of the Ursuline
Convent, who also later delivered an eloquent address.
After prayer the meeting was called to order by the
superioress of the Convent, Rev. Mother St. Stanis-
(The latter part of this sketch was prepared from
the catalogue of Ursuline Academy for 1901-1902,
and the Ursuline Alumnae, both kindly furnished by
the mother superioress.)
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 31
Salem Academy, Winston-Salem, North Carolina,
IN 1752 a party of Moravian settlers entered the
" Old North State," having received a liberal offer
from Lord Granville if they would settle upon his
estates in the " New World/' The tract which they
settled was around the spot now occupied by the
flourishing city of Winston-Salem, at that time an
unbroken wilderness. The first settlement was lo-
cated about six miles north of what is now Winston-
The Moravians, since the days of John Huss, have
paid much attention to education. A prominent ar-
ticle of their faith is that in order to make good men
and women it is necessary to begin work upon the
children, and that, too, at a very early age. Hence,
as soon as they build a church they build a school-
house. Fifty years elapsed before they could put
their faith into practice in North Carolina. However,
in 1802 they founded Salem Academy, a school for
girls. It is one of the five institutions of higher learn-
ing in the United States which are the property of
the American Moravian Church and are conducted
under the supervision of the executive boards of its
provinces North and South.
The European system of grading now being widely
used by American schools was the original basis of
the system of the Academy. The scholastic work was
divided into three departments : preparatory, requiring
four years; academic, occupying four years, and the
post-graduate course, whose length depends upon the
pursuits of the pupil.
32 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
The curriculum, from the organization, has included
music and art, and industrial art, which embraced
lessons in cooking and housewifery, plain sewing, em-
broidery, lace-making, and drawn work. During the
early period of the school the course in music con-
sisted of lessons on the piano and singing lessons in
class; the work in art was confined to drawing, and
painting in water-colors.
Primitive as this may seem now, it was very valu-
able in those days, and many a plain, unpretentious
home in the Southland was adorned with these sketches
made at Salem, and the monotony of work relieved
by the daughter's simple ballads.
From time to time the curriculum has been extended
to meet the demands of the time, until now it em-
braces the regular academic and collegiate courses,
comprehensive courses in music and art, departments
of elocution and languages, and commercial and in-
Buildings have also been added, until there are ten
large buildings, which are situated in a very beautiful
park of thirty acres.
" No effort could accurately portray the permanent
role which the Salem Academy for girls and women
has played in the educational development, not only of
North Carolina and the South, but of the whole coun-
try. Thousands of alumnae sent out since its in-
ception, representing the ablest educators, the most
refined and cultivated women noble and grand in
purpose bless nearly every community in America.
The Salem Academy has ever stood paramount with
the higher education of the country, and its aim has
always been to afford a broad and liberal culture for
women: to furnish to young women an education in
classics, mathematics, and sciences equal to that ob-
tained in our best colleges for young men, and to
add to these a special training in social culture, music,
art, and conversation which shall better qualify her
to enjoy and do well her life-work. The aim has
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 33
been, not only to give the broadest and highest moral,
intellectual, and physical culture, but also to preserve
and perfect every characteristic of complete woman-
hood." (From a sketch written by Rev. J. H. Clewell,
published in " The City of Winston-Salem.")
The Academy was not established, nor is it now
conducted, for purposes of gain, but as a means of
Christian usefulness. The principal has no pecuniary
interest in the school, being simply the agent of the
church, by the authorities of which he is selected for
this department of its activity; and while this institu-
tion is under the auspices of the Moravian Church,
the strictest adherence to non-sectarian principles is
The charges for board and tuition have always been
so moderate that the advantages offered by the Acad-
emy have been placed within the reach of thousands of
girls whose limited means would have debarred them
from collegiate training.
Early in the century the school became famous,
and girls rode hundreds of miles on horseback to at-
tend school at this academy. When Salem was reached
the horses were sold and the saddles hung in the sad-
dle-room to remain four years. At the end of the
course of study the fathers returned to Salem, pur-
chased horses, the saddles were taken down, and the
company bade farewell to the school-home, and went
forth to encounter the stern realities of life. Many
of these girls filled high social positions; twice pupils
of Salem Academy have presided in the White House,
and almost every gubernatorial mansion in the South
has had a pupil from the Academy as the lady of the
house. Among the wives of distinguished military
men may be noted those of Stonewall Jackson and
Never since the Academy was opened, over one
hundred years ago, have its doors been closed. Dur-
ing the War between the States it was considered a
safe place of refuge, and it was filled to its utmost
34 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
capacity all through those dark days. When the hos-
tile armies in turn filled the town, the principal al-
ways secured a guard for the building and its hundreds
of precious young lives.
The patronage has always been good ; at the present
time there are over 400 persons connected with the
school. This patronage is drawn from all sections
of the United States and from foreign countries. The
corps of instructors numbers 35 and the alumnae
Although the school has been so popular, and its
aim has always been to maintain a high standard of
scholarship, it was not incorporated until February 3,
1866; the act of incorporation granted the power to
confer " such degrees, or marks of literary distinc-
tion, or diplomas, as are usually conferred in colleges
and seminaries of learning."
The Academy has had eleven principals, viz:
Messrs. Kranach, Steiner, Reichel, Bleek, Jacobson, E.
De Schweini, Grunet, Zorn, R. De Schweinitz, Rond-
thaler, and Clewell.
" Salem Academy celebrated its centennial in June,
1902. This celebration marks an epoch in the history
of the " Old North State," and it is difficult to ex-
actly estimate its value on succeeding years. Dr.
Kemp J. Battle delivered an address on " North Caro-
lina in 1800 " ; Senator Clarke of Montana, an ad-
dress on "The United States in 1800"; while on
" Alumnae Day " the different alumnae branches
were presented, and several of the old alumnae gave
reminiscences of the old Academy.
" Mrs. Donald McLean of New York, Miss Louisa
B. Poppenheim of Charleston, South Carolina, Mrs.
Pierce of the New York Tribune, and Mrs. Johnson
of New York made addresses.
" The most popular visitors were Governor Chas.
Aycock, known as the " Educational Governor," and
" The day of the Governor's arrival the city
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 35
turned out en masse. He was met at the station
by the representative citizens men and women and
escorted through the city; in fact, he was always es-
corted by an admiring crowd. Many prominent ed-
ucators were present, among them President Mclver
of the State Normal College (Greensboro), President
Venable of the University of North Carolina, Dean
Penniman of the University of Pennsylvania, and
several others who showed their appreciation of the
" One evening was given up to a series of tableaux,
representing the principal events in the history of
North Carolina during the past century. There were
many elaborate musical programs, but the most inter-
esting ceremony of the week was the real commence-
ment day, when thirty girls, in their classic white caps
and gowns, marched into the chapel carrying their
daisy chain, and when they had received their diplo-
mas, filed out again under the trees to hear the Gov-
ernor's address and to assist in laying the corner-stone
of the Alumnae Hall.
" The social functions of the week were many
and most elaborate, including balls, receptions,
luncheons, etc., for Winston-Salem is full of refine-
ment and wealth, a most desirable combination. The
alumnae served a luncheon to 500 guests in the Acad-
emy Chapel. During the afternoon several distin-
guished guests were called on for speeches, and there
was an air of ease and grace throughout the enter-
tainment. On Commencement Day Dr. and Mrs.
Clewell entertained about 500 ladies and gentlemen,
including the Governor and his staff, with a similar
feast in the same place." (A sketch by Miss L. B.
Poppenheim, in The Keystone.)
The Ursuline Convent, New Orleans, Louisiana, is
the only other school for girls in the Southern States
that has had a continuous activity for a cen-
(The material for this sketch was obtained from a
36 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
sketch by Dr. Clewell, catalogues, and papers sent by
him to the writer.)
Nazareth Academy, 1808-1908
When Bishop Flaget was appointed pioneer Bishop
of the West, in 1808, he conceived the idea of forming
a band of women to educate the children of his dio-
cese. He chose as the director of this new community
his friend and companion, Rev. John B. David, su-
perior of the newly created theological seminary of
St. Thomas. A farm located amidst the picturesque
knobs of Nelson county was secured, and Father
David and the seminarians built a log cabin on it
about nine miles from Bardstown, and here the Sis-
ters of Charity of Nazareth began to teach the chil-
dren of the sturdy farmers who lived around the
Episcopal residence, which was also a log cabin, De-
cember i. Before Easter three others had joined the
order. As soon as the Bishop's plan became known
Sister Teresa Carico and Sister Elizabeth Wells of-
fered for the work, and before the end of the first
month Sister Catherine Spalding joined the commu-
This little band of five women patiently endured
the hardships, and faithfully performed the tasks that
fell to the lot of pioneer women. They supported
themselves, and in addition to the labor of teaching
and nursing the sick, they spun and wove and made
garments for themselves and the seminarians, and
worked in the fields. The little school prospered, and
in 1814 Nazareth Academy was established; and al-
though many other educational institutions have been
established since Nazareth was founded, it has retained
its early prestige, and keeps abreast in all essentials.
The community came out of those days of trial
victoriously, and after a decade they numbered thirty-
five, including sisters, postulants, and novices ; and the
number of pupils thirty. They now felt encouraged
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 37
to seek a more extensive field of labor, and selected
a tract of land lying two and half miles north of
Bardstown, owned by Mr. William Hynes, which the
donation of Sister Scholastica O'Connell enabled them
to buy. A frame house, the dwelling of the former
occupant, was converted into a schoolhouse and no-
vitiate ; the log cabin near served for a chapel, in which
Father David celebrated the first mass ever said on
June n, 1822, was truly a joyful day, the day on
which the sisters took possession of their new home.
The new site was called Nazareth also, and from this
date Nazareth Academy became a boarding-school
only. Since the purchase of the farm the school has
had no further endowment; the income derived from
tuition has been devoted to improvement and expan-
sion. Within six years after the removal $20,000 had
been spent in improving the place, and in eight years
the number of pupils had increased from thirty to
one hundred and twenty. Not only has the parent
school been maintained, but as many as sixty-seven
branch schools have been established in the West and
South. Teachers for all these schools are furnished
by a normal school conducted at Nazareth, where all
these teachers are trained.
Nazareth Academy was chartered by the Kentucky
Legislature in 1829, under the title of " Nazareth Lit-
erary and Benevolent Institution," and was given the
usual powers and privileges. Under this charter the
institution is managed by the community, under the
general supervision of a board of seven trustees, of
whom the Bishop of Louisville is moderator.
The most prominent of the early members of the
order were Mother Catherine Spaldinsr, Sister Ellen
O'Connell, and Sister Harriet Gardiner. Mother
Catherine Spalding, a member of the talented Ken-
tucky family of that name, and a cousin of Archbishop
Spalding, seventh archbishop of Baltimore, joined the
community in the first month of its existence; and
38 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
shortly afterward was elected mother superior of the
order, a position she held for twenty-four years. She
was the pivot on which the affairs of the growing
sisterhood turned for many years. She had the at-
tributes of mind that peculiarly fitted her for leader-
ship purity of intention and an indomitable will.
She was noted for her clear convictions of duty and
her faithful performance of its demands.
Mother Frances Gardiner succeeded Mother Cath-
erine, and for thirty-five years was mother superior
of the community. She had a great talent for admin-
istration, and successfully managed the affairs of the
A name held in great esteem by Catholics of Ken-
tucky is Mother Columba Carroll. She was a pupil
of Nazareth, and was trained intellectually by "Sister
Ellen O'Connell and spiritually by the saintly Sister
Columba Tarleton. She was Sister Ellen O'Connell's
successor as directress of studies, and held this posi-
tion for thirty-five years. Mother Columba possessed
extraordinary zeal and tact in ruling the sisterhood.
Sister Ellen O'Connell was the first directress of
studies, and held this position thirty-five years, dating
from the first opening of the school at St. Thomas.
She imparted to the course from the beginning that
strength and thoroughness which soon made Nazareth
prominent and attracted pupils from a distance. Her
sister, Sister Scolastica O'Connell, was the first music
teacher in the school.
When a member of the sisterhood of Nazareth lives
to see the fiftieth anniversary of the day she devoted
herself to God in the service of the young poor the
day is celebrated as a golden jubilee. The Community
Annals record twenty-one golden jubilees since the
celebration of the first, that of Sister Elizabeth Sut-
tle, December I, 1866. Sister Martha Drnry, one
of the original five that started at " Old Nazareth,"
lived to see her diamond anniversary. The 4th of
November, 1896, will be long remembered by those
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 39
who were present at the golden jubilee of Mother
Helena Tormey and Sister Alexia Macky. The most
impressive ceremony of the day was the Pontifical
Mass. The Mestag Mass, composed for Nazareth
Convent, was artistically rendered with organ and
full orchestra accompaniment. All the priests whose
parochial schools are taught by the Sisters of Charity
of Nazareth had been invited to attend, and when
dinner was served there were, including the Bishop,
exactly fifty priests present.
Mother Helena was chosen to succeed Mother Co-
lumba as mother superior, a charge rendered more
difficult on account of the eminent qualifications of her
predecessors. During her administration the com-
munity prospered, new houses were opened in the East
and the South, and the membership of the sisterhood
increased every day.
Sister Alexia devoted her life to the orphans, and
for nearly fifty years rose at half-past four that she
might be ready for the labors of the day.
On the twentieth of June, 1896, the venerable
daughters of Nazareth assembled to organize an alum-
nae association. Mrs. E. Miles, nee Bradford, was
elected president, and Mrs. E. Snowden, nee Tarleton,
counsellor. Among those in attendance at this meet-
ing were three generations of one family. Miss Mar-
garet Fossick, who had received her laurels but an
hour ago, her mother, Mrs. T. L. Fossick, nee
O'Reilly, who was graduated in 1871, and her great-
aunt, Mrs. R. Davis, nee O'Reilly, of the class of 1853.
The circular setting forth the plan called out enthusias-
tic responses from all parts of the country, and even
from beyond the sea, where several of Nazareth's
daughters now reside. Some ninety to one hundred
of the alumnae assembled at Nazareth, June 15, 1896.
An interesting feature of the alumnae meeting of
1897 was tne reading of a letter to the alumnae by
Eliza Kinkead, who represented the sixteenth member
of her family who had been pupils of this institution,
40 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
written by her great-aunt, Mrs. H. Pridle, a former
graduate her great-great-grand-aunt having been
one of Nazareth's earliest pupils and first graduates.
The meeting of the alumnae in 1899 was remarkable
for the number of those present whose school days
at Nazareth had ended fifty, sixty, even seventy years
before. Among this number was the venerable Mrs.
Elizabeth Henshaw, a representative of the class of
1829, but not a graduate. Seventy years had passed
since she bade farewell to school days, and still she
was hale and hearty.
Mrs. Rudd Alexander and Mrs. Emily Snowden,
both of Louisville, were graduated in 1839, and were
the oldest living graduates of Nazareth. Others num-
bered forty, fifty years since they had left the classic
shades of Nazareth.
The course of instruction extends through seven
years, ranging from primary to collegiate grades, and
having normal, business, and domestic science depart-
ments; also the departments of music and art. A
large, well-trained faculty has always been maintained,
and a library (containing 5000 volumes), a museum,
and laboratories furnish good facilities for teaching.
The patronage has always been large, the attendance
having been frequently over two hundred in a year,
and has come from Kentucky and the Southern States
generally, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Texas,
and Alabama having been and are still well repre-
sented. The average number of graduates in recent
years has been about twelve, and the total number of
alumnae is about seven hundred. The latter are quite
widely distributed throughout the Union, and many
of them occupy prominent positions in teaching and
other professions, especially in the West.
(Lewis's History of Higher Education in Kentucky.
Catalogues and correspondence.)
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 41
Loretta Academy, Loretta, Kentucky, 1812-1908
The Loretta Order is a plant of no foreign growth.
A tiny seed sown amid the virgin forests of Kentucky,
it germinated and flourished in the New World, and
recognizes America as its native soil. In 1812 Rev.
Charles Nerinckx, a devoted missionary priest of Bel-
gium, lately attached to the diocese and greatly inter-
ested in education, started a small school near the site
of the present Academy. At first Miss Anne Rhodes
was the only teacher. A few months later she was
joined by Misses Christine Stuart and Anna Haven;
Misses Mary Rhodes and Nellie Morgan were very-
soon added to the number. The school prospered,
and the ladies in charge wishing to become a perma-
nent religious body, applied to Rome, through their
founder, to obtain this boon. Pope Pius VII. readily
granted this favor, and in 1816, the new order having
received a formal recognition from the Holy See,
was taken under the special protection of the Propa-
ganda. From this small beginning of 1812 the teach-
ing force has increased to thirty, and colonies of
Sisters have gone forth from the mother-house and
established themselves in various parts of the United
States. These branch houses now number forty-five,
and the teachers employed are provided by a normal
school at Loretta, and the faculties of the various
schools wherever located are appointed by the superior
of the order.
The first three postulants were received by Father
Nerinckx, who styled them " Friends of Mary at the
Foot of the Cross." They were consecrated at St.
Charles Church in Marion County, Kentucky, April
Loretta Academy was incorporated in 1829 by the
Kentucky Legislature, and empowered to grant di-
plomas, and at once the Academy took a position as
one of the leading schools of the country, and as
42 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
such has been patronized by representative families
from different parts of the United States and Mexico.
The Academy and other buildings are located on a
tract of fifteen hundred acres. This is partly laid out
in orchards and gardens, while other sections are used
for raising grain and various food products. Much
of the land is covered with magnificent forest trees,
interspersed by winding brooks and murmuring water-
falls, thus affording the pupils facilities for delightful
The Academy is a commodious building, four stories
in height, with all modern improvements, such as
steam heat, gas, etc. The study hall, refectory, class,
recreation, and music-rooms are cheerful and inviting.
Large airy dormitories occupy the second floor, com-
municating with bath and toilet-rooms supplied with
hot and cold water.
The other principal buildings at Loretta are the
church, convent, visitors' house, chaplain's residence,
novitiate, steam laundry, workmen's dwelling, and
last but most interesting, a small brick building erected
by the Rev. S. T. Badin, the pioneer priest of Ken-
tucky. This house was afterward used by Bishop
Flaget as an Episcopal residence and seminary, and is
now reserved for gentlemen guests at Loretta.
The course of study may be completed in four vears.
The languages taught are French, German, and Span-
ish by native teachers, and Latin and Greek. Music
in all its branches is taught on the plan of the best
conservatories under the direction of teachers of ac-
knowledged ability. A large concert hall and numer-
ous music-rooms are equipped with pianos, organs,
harps, and the smaller musical instruments for lessons
In the art department every advantage is offered
to pupils interested in this pursuit. Instructions are
given in object drawing, crayon, pastel, oil, china,
and water colors, and in various branches of decora-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 43
Miss Mary Jane Lancaster was the first graduate
of Loretta, and the only one of that year. Her di-
ploma, which is still in existence, bears the date of
July 16, 1837. The names of the directors of the
school at that time are also on the diploma ; they were,
Mother Isabella Clarke, Generose Mattingly, secre-
tary, and Sister Bridget Spalding, directress of studies ;
Bishop Flaget, Ordinary of the Diocese of Louisville.
The Museum contains a well-arranged collection of
specimens illustrative of the sciences: botany, min-
eralogy, zoology, and geology. Two laboratories,
chemical and physical, are also a part of the equipment.
A well-selected library of several thousand volumes
forms a part of the furnishing of the Academy, and
here are a number of periodicals and late papers.
Elisabeth Academy, Old Washington, Mississippi,
Salem Academy celebrated the one hundredth com-
mencement in June, 1902, and Nazareth Academy cel-
ebrated her diamond jubilee in June, 1897, and it is
now ninety-three years since the Academy was es-
tablished at " Old Nazareth," but it was reserved for
Mississippi to be the first State to provide collegiate
training for women. This was accomplished when
Elizabeth Academy, at " Old Washington," was es-
tablished in 1817. Because of the name " Academy "
some have refused to recognize this school as a col-
lege. It is not the name, but the powers granted by
the charter and the curriculum taught that differen-
tiates a college. By the terms of its charter Elizabeth
Academy was a college, and there is ample credible
testimony that a college course of study was taught.
In addition to this proof, Dr. W. T. Harris, Commis-
sioner of Education, remarked after reading the his-
tory of this school as given in " History of Education
in Mississippi," by Edward Mayes, LL. D. : "That
school was a college in all but name."
44 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
This institution was celebrated in its day for the
thoroughness of its work and for its large measure
of success. It is also memorable for several other
facts. It was the first school for girls exclusively,
incorporated by either the Territorial or the State
Legislature of Mississippi. It was the first school in
Mississippi or any other State to aspire to the dignity
of a college, and it was the first college for girls es-
tablished by the Methodist Church anywhere, and
the first fruits of Protestantism in the extreme
This institution was situated near Washington,
Adams County, one-half mile from the town, and
near Jefferson College. The land and buildings were
donated to the Methodist Church by Mrs. Elizabeth
Roach, afterward Mrs. Greenfield, in 1818, and the
school began its work in November, 1818. The
formal act of incorporation was passed February 17,
1819. This act provides that the Academy should be
under the superintendence of John Menefee, David
Rawlings, Alexander Covington, John W. Bryant, and
Beverly R. Grayson and their successors, who shall
constitute a board politic and corporate, by the name
and style of " the Trustees of the Elizabeth Female
Academy," and they and their successors are made
capable of receiving and acquiring real and personal
estate, either by donation or purchase, for the bene-
fit of the institution, not exceeding $100,000.
These trustees were enabled to grant diplomas or
other certificates or to confer degrees. All vacancies
in said board shall be filled by the members of the
Methodist Mississippi Annual Conference. The con-
dition was that the Conference should maintain a
high school for the education of girls. On these
terms the Conference accepted the donation, and in
token of gratitude for the gift, the institution was
called by the Christian name of the donor.
The building, in style of Spanish architecture of
colonial times, was two and a half stories high, the
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 45
first of brick and the others of frame. A fire con-
sumed it more than twenty years ago, leaving only
the solid masonry as a memorial of the educational
ambition and spiritual consecration of early Missis-
sippi Methodism. Some of the grandest women of
the Southwest received their well-earned diplomas
within those now scarred walls, and went out to pre-
side over their own model and magnificent homes.
The early catalogues contain the names of fair daugh-
ters who afterward became the accomplished matrons
of historic families. For ten years the Elizabeth Acad-
emy was the only college for girls in the Southwest;
all others have been the followers and beneficiaries
of this brave heroine.
The Academy opened its doors to pupils November
12, 1818, under the presidency of Chillon F. Stiles,
with Mrs Jane B. Sanderson as governess. Of the
first president and first lady principal of that first
college for young ladies in all the Southwest, the
distinguished Dr. William Winans thus writes most
interestingly in his autobiography:
" Chillon F. Stiles was a man of high intellectual
and moral character, and eminent for piety. The
governess was Mrs. Jane B. Sanderson, a Presbyterian
lady of fine manners and an excellent teacher, but
subject to great and frequent depression of spirits.
This resulted, no doubt, from the shock she had re-
ceived from the murder of her husband a few years
previously, by a robber. Though a Presbyterian, and
stanch to her sect, she acted her part with so much
prudence and liberality as to give entire satisfaction
to her Methodist employers and patrons.
" Some of the most improving, as well as the most
agreeable, hours of relaxation from my official duties
were at the Academy in the society of Brother Stiles,
who combined in an eminent degree, sociability of
disposition, good sense, extensive information on vari-
ous subjects, and fervent piety, rendering him an
agreeable and instructive companion. He was the only
46 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
person I ever knew who owed his adoption of a re-
ligious course of life to the instrumentality of Free
Masonry. He was awakened to a sense of his sinful-
ness in the process of initiation into that fraternity.
Up to that time he had been a gay man of the world,
and a skeptic, if not an infidel in regard to the Chris-
tian religion. But so powerful and effective was the
influence upon him by something in his initiation, that
from that hour he turned to God with purpose of heart,
soon entered into peace, and thenceforth walked before
God in newness of life, till his pilgrimage terminated in
a triumphant death.
" Mr. Stiles was succeeded in the^presidency by Rev.
John C. Burruss, an elegant gentleman, a finished
scholar, and an eloquent preacher. The school greatly
prospered under his administration, as it continued to
do under his immediate successor, Rev. B. M. Drake,
a name that ever lived among us as the synonym for
consecrated scholarship, perfect propriety, unaffected
piety, and singular sincerity. In 1833 Dr. Drake re-
signed to devote himself entirely to pastoral work, and
was succeeded by Rev. J. P. Thomas, and in 1836 he
gave way to Rev. Bradford Frazee of Louisville,
Kentucky. Rev. R. D. Smith, well known throughout
the Southwest for his rare devotion, was called to
the president's chair in 1839."
Some of the by-laws adopted by the board of trus-
tees for the government and regulation of the Acad-
emy recall in a measure the rigid and elaborate rules
prescribed by Mr. Wesley for the school in Kings-
wood. A few are given :
" The president of the Academy . . . shall be
reputed for piety and learning, and for order and
economy in the government of his family. If married
he shall not be less than thirty; if not married, not
less than fifty years of age.
" The governess shall be pious, learned, and of grave
and dignified deportment. She shall have charge of
the school, its order, discipline, and instructions, and
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 47
the general deportment and behavior of the pupils
who board in or out of commons.
" OF PATRONESSES
" On the last day of every academic year the board
of trustees shall choose three respectable matrons, who
shall be acting patronesses of the Academy. It shall
be the duty of the patronesses to visit the school as
often as they think necessary, and inspect the sleep-
ing-rooms, dress, and deportment of the pupils, and
generally the economy and management of the Acad-
emy, and report the same in writing to the board of
trustees for correction, if needed.
" ON APPROPRIATION OF TIME
" All pupils boarding in commons shall convene in
the large school-room at sunrise in the morning, and
at eight o'clock in the evening for prayers.
" The hours of teaching shall be from nine o'clock
in the morning until noon; and from two o'clock in
the afternoon until five; but in May, June, and July
they shall begin one hour sooner in the morning and
continue until noon; and from three o'clock in the
afternoon until six, Friday evenings excepted, when
the school shall be dismissed at five.
" No pupil shall be allowed to receive ceremonious
visits. All boarders in commons shall wear a plain
dress and uniform bonnets. No pupil shall be per-
mitted to wear beads, jewelry, artificial flowers, curls,
feathers, or any superfluous decoration. No pupil
shall be allowed to attend balls, dancing parties, the-
atrical performances, or festive entertainments."
What would the women trained in such a school
48 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
think of the college training and manners of the pres-
ent day, should they be permitted to return to wit-
STUDIES OF THE SENIOR CLASS
First Session Chemistry, natural philosophy, moral
philosophy, botany; Latin, ^Esop's Fables, Sacra His-
toria, Viri Roma Illustres. Second Session In-
tellectual philosophy, evidences of Christianity, my-
thology, general history, Latin, Cccsar's Bella Gallica.
Students who have completed the full course above
shall be entitled to the honors of the institution, with
a diploma on parchment for the degree of Domina
Scientiarum. Those who have pursued with honor
the whole course of study shall be entitled to remain
one academic year, free of charge for tuition, and be
associated in an honorary class, to be engaged in the
pursuit of science and polite literature, and ornamen-
tal studies, after which they shall be entitled to an
In Mrs. Thayer's report to the board of trustees
she gives some of the principles of teaching used in
" By your regulations I am required to teach the
principles of the Government of the United States.
On that subject I have found no book suitable to
place in the hands of young ladies. This deficiency
has been supplied, to the best of my ability, by familiar
lectures, in which I have made The Federalist my text-
book of politics.
" In arithmetic, we begin with Colburn's introduc-
tion. The system, of which this work gives the ele-
mentary principles, is founded on the maxim that chil-
dren should be instructed in every science just as fast
as they are able to understand it. In conformity to
this principle the pupil is led progressively and by a
process so easy and gradual to the more complex and
difficult combinations of numbers, that he finds him-
self familiar with the subject and enjoys a satisfac-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 49
tion in his study which he could never realize in per-
forming the mechanical operation of ciphering by ar-
" Geography and drawing are commenced simul-
taneously. Our first lesson in geography consists
in drawing, as well as we are able, a map of the acad-
emy grounds. We draw next the little village in the
suburbs of which we are located, first laying down a
scale of miles and adapting our map to it in size.
When this is well understood we proceed to delineate
a map of the United States, and repeat the exercise
until the whole or any part may be drawn with ac-
curacy and dispatch without a copy. In our recita-
tions no map is used by the pupil but the one she is
able to draw from memory alone."
In conclusion Mrs. Thayer says :
" The time has been when the education of females
was limited to those branches in which their imme-
diate occupations lie. But, happy for the present age,
and happy too, for posterity, the public sentiment has
undergone a change in favor of female cultivation.
Without undervaluing personal accomplishment, or
disregarding domestic duties, we are permitted to
aspire to the dignity of intellectual beings, and, as
was beautifully expressed by a gentleman who ad-
dressed us at the close of our * examinations/ * The
whole map of knowledge is spread before the female
scholar, and no Gades of the ancients is set up as the
limits of discovery/ '
The coming of Mrs. Thayer in the fall of 1825 was
an epoch in the history of the Academy, and her ad-
ministration marked an era. She was a remarkably
accomplished woman, with a genius for administra-
tion. Of her Dr. Winans, president of the board of
" In the evening I returned to Brother Burruss's,
where I met Sister C. M. Thayer, who has come to
take charge of Elizabeth Female Academy. She is
a woman of middle size, of coarse features, some
50 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
of the stiffness of Yankee manners, but of an intelli-
gent and pleasant expression of countenance; free in
conversation and various and abundant in informa-
Rev. John C. Burruss, the president of the Acad-
"Mrs. Thayer is a most extraordinary woman;
I have never seen such a teacher."
She was a grand-niece of General Warren, the hero
of Bunker Hill, educated in Boston, warmly recom-
mended by Dr. Wilbur Fisk, and before coming to
Mississippi had made great reputation as an author
and teacher. She had taught for a while with Rev.
Valentine Cook on Green River, Kentucky, and had
published a volume of essays and poems that attracted
The editor of the Southern Galaxy, a paper pub-
lished in Natchez, attended the semi-annual examina-
tions at Elizabeth Academy in the spring of 1829,
and highly commended the institution, and also the
unquestioned capacity of the governess, Mrs. Thayer.
He said of the recitations of the preparatory depart-
ment : " They were, to say the least of them, interest-
ing. The reading was spirited and correct." Of the
academic department he said : " The proficiency ex-
hibited in natural and mental philosophy and chemis-
try by the higher classes reflects great credit upon
the capacity and industry of the students, as well as
the highest encomium upon the government of the
institution. If at this stage of the examination we
were delighted, when we heard the class in mathe-
matics we were astonished ; and certainly it is a mat-
ter of astonishment to witness little girls of twelve
years of age treat the most abstruse problems of
Euclid as playthings. Nor were they dependent upon
memory alone, and we will give our reasons for think-
ing so. During one of the solutions upon the black-
board we forget which it was it was suggested that
the young lady was in error. ' No, ma'am/ replied
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 51
the pupil, with great promptitude and self-possession;
1 1 am correct. The bases of a parallelogram must
be equal/ The principle is indeed a simple one, but
the readiness with which it was adduced in argument,
and that too under embarrassing circumstances, was
to us a most conclusive evidence of an extraordinary
discipline of mind."
The eloquent literary address delivered on this oc-
casion by Duncan S. Walker is published in full in
this issue of the Galaxy. In the same issue of the
paper, March 26, 1829, is this communication:
" To The Editor of The Southern Galaxy.
" Sir: The following lines are the production of a
pupil in the Elizabeth Female Academy at Washing-
ton. If you think them worthy of a place in your
paper, their insertion may aid the cause of female ed-
ucation, by awakening emulation among your young
readers, though their youthful author only intended
them for the eyes of her preceptress. C. M. T.
"'What is Beauty?
Tis not the finest form, the fairest face
That loveliness imply:
'Tis not the witching smile, the pleasing grace,
That charms just Reason's eye.
" ' No, 'tis the sunshine of the spotless mind,
The warmest, truest heart,
That leaves all lower, grosser things behind,
And acts the noblest part.
" ' That sunshine beaming o'er the radiant face,
With virtue's purest glow,
Will give the plainest lineaments a grace
That beauty cannot show.
" ' This face, this heart alone can boast a charm
To please just Reason's eye,
And this can stern Adversity disarm
And even Time defy.'"
The annual examination in early summer was a
52 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
greater occasion than the semi-annual of which an ac-
count has just been given.
From 1828 to 1832 Rev. Dr. B. M. Drake was pres-
ident, with Mrs. Thayer as governess. An elaborate
notice of the commencement which embraced August
21, 1829, was published in the papers of the young
State " the first detailed account of such an event
A board of visitors appointed by the trustees, con-
sisting of such distinguished men as Robert L. Walker,
J. P. H. Claiborne, and Dr. J. W. Monette, was pres-
ent and made report as follows:
" The most unqualified praise would be no more
than justice for the splendid evidence of their close
attention and assiduity, as exhibited on this occasion;
and we take pleasure in giving it as our opinion, that
such honorable proof of female literary and scienti-
fic acquirements has seldom been exhibited in this or
any other country. And while it proves the order and
discipline with which science and literature are pur-
sued by the pupils, it proves no less the flourishing
condition and the merited patronage the institution
enjoys. Nothing reflects more honor upon the pres-
ent age than the liberality displayed in the education
of females; nor can anything evince more clearly the
justness with which female education is appreciated
in the South than this exhibition, and the interest
manifested by the large and respectable audience dur-
ing the whole of the exercise. The literary and scien-
tific character of the governess, Mrs. Thayer, is too
well known to admit of commendation from us."
In addition to these notices, the essay of Miss Anna
W. Boyd, who graduated with the honors of her class,
appears in full.
It will be interesting to many yet living to give
the names of the graduates and those distinguished in
the several classes:
Graduates Miss Anna W. Boyd, Ireland ; Miss Su-
san Smith, Adams County; Miss Mary C. Hewett,
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 53
Washington, Mississippi; Miss Mary J. Patterson,
Port Gibson; Miss Sarah Chew, Adams County; Miss
Eliza A. Fox, Natchez.
Honorary distinctions were conferred upon the fol-
lowing pupils for proficiency in study and correct
moral deportment :
First Class Miss Ellen V. Keavy, Pinckneyville,
Louisiana; Miss Martha D. Richardson, Washita,
Louisiana ; Miss Mary A. Fretwell, Natchez, Miss Ma-
ria L. Newman, Washington, Mississippi. Second
Class Miss Martha Crosby, Wilkinson County; Miss
Sarah M. Forman, Washington, Mississippi ; Miss
Catherine O. Newman, Washington, Mississippi ; Miss
Susan C. Robertson, Port Gibson. Third Class-
Miss Mary Scott, Alexander, Louisiana; Miss Char-
lotte C. Scott, Alexander, Louisiana; Miss Mary E.
Gordon, Alexander, Louisiana; Miss Emily Smith,
Adams County ; Miss Emily Vick, Vicksburg. Fourth
Class Miss Charlotte Wolcott, Vicksburg; Miss
Mary A. Chandler, Pinckneyville, Louisiana. Fifth
Class Miss Mary E. Roberts, Washington, Missis-
sippi ; Miss Matilda J. Nevitt, Adams County. Sixth
Class Miss Laura J. A. King, Adams County; Miss
Martha B. Brabston, Washington, Mississippi.
Mrs. Thayer resigned her position in 1832, and was
followed by Mrs. Susan Brewer, with Miss Rowena
Crane as assistant.
In 1833 the study of piano music was introduced,
and thenceforward was a part of the course regularly
In 1839 Miss Lucy A. Stillman was principal gover-
ness, and Miss Mary B. Currie music teacher.
In the Mississippi Free Trader of March 10, 1842,
appeared the following notice:
" ELIZABETH FEMALE ACADEMY.
" There is probably no subject dearer to the patriot
and Christian philanthropist than that of female edu-
54 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
cation. According to his view, both national and in-
dividual happiness and prosperity are immediately and
inseparably connected with the proper intellectual
training and moral culture of the female mind. This
conclusion is not the result of a long train of phili-
sophical or logical deductions, but is immediately in-
ferred from the important position that woman holds
in the social compact and from the many endearing
relations she sustains in life. I was led to these re-
flections from witnessing the semi-annual examina-
tions of the pupils of the Elizabeth Female Academy
at Washington, Mississippi, which took place on
Thursday and Friday last.
" This examination did equal credit to the zeal and
ability of the teachers, and the industry and mental
resources of the pupils. They showed an extensive
and accurate knowledge of the most important
branches of mental and physical science, as well as
great skill and taste in several of the more strictly
ornamental branches of education. A delightful va-
riety was given to the whole examination by the per-
formances of a very fine class in music.
" The institution is admitted by all who know its
history to be more ably conducted by its present tal-
ented and highly accomplished principal, Mrs. Camp-
bell, and more deserving of patronage than it has been
since the administration of Mrs. Thayer.
" At the close of the examination a very appro-
priate and eloquent address was delivered to the young
ladies by Rev. D. C. Page of Natchez.
The next year, 1843, was the last year of the ex-
istence of the Academy ; many changes had taken place
in the conditions of the country. Washington was
no longer a place of importance, and its population
was yearly decreasing, while other towns, Port Gib-
son, Woo'dville, and Natchez, were thriving towns.
Other schools had been organized, and it was deemed
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 55
best to close the school. The Academy was abandoned,
and by the terms of the grant its property reverted
to the heirs of the donor.
Chancellor Mayes says of this institution : " For
twenty-five years it did noble work. In the decade
from 1819 to 1829 its boarders amounted in number
annually from twenty-eight to sixty-three."
Mrs. John Lane, Mrs. C. K. Marshall, Mrs. Kava-
naugh, wife of Bishop Kavanaugh; Mrs. B. M. Drake,
and many elect ladies of the Southwest were educated
at that mother of female colleges. On its foundations
others have been built, and are to-day doing great
work for the Church and the world.
(The material for this sketch was obtained from
articles written by Bishop Galloway, for the Nash-
ville Christian Advocate, and from " History of Edu-
cation in Mississippi," by Edward Mayes, LL.D.)
56 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Early Schools in Alabama
WHEN Sieur d'Iberville was sent to establish a
French Empire on the American continent his first
landing was made on Alabama soil, his first explora-
tions were made in Mobile Bay. He built his first
fort, Fort de Maurepas, on the " back bay of Biloxi,"
about where Ocean Springs now stands; but in a few
years he abandoned Fort de Maurepas and located
his capital at " Twenty-one mile bluff " on the Ala-
bama River, and named this fort " Fort Louis de la
Louisane," and around it the colonists built their
houses, and " Old Mobile " was the capital of Louisi-
ana for many years.
Governor Bienville strenuously endeavored to es-
tablish a school in " Old Mobile," but failed ; however,
he did not abandon the idea of having a school in the
colony, but no school was ever established in Mobile
or elsewhere in Alabama during French occupation,
from 1702 to 1763.
Neither is there any record/ of a school during
British dominion, though the government did allow
fifty pounds a year for the pay of a schoolmaster.
No records of schools under Spanish rule remain ex-
tant, if any such schools ever were established. It is
true the priests, both Spanish and French, kept schools
for religious not literary instruction of the Indians,
but no schools for the colonists.
The records, deeds, transfers of property, and other
legal documents made during foreign supremacy in
Alabama indisputably attest the illiteracy of the colo-
nists. These papers are signed with an X (cross) in-
stead of the written name.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 57
A century passed after the first settlement of Ala-
bama before a school was opened or a Protestant
church established, but a new era dawned toward the
close of the eighteenth century, when citizens of other
States began to seek homes in Alabama. So rapidly
did this population increase that only a few years
elapsed before the English-speaking citizens far out-
numbered the foreign population, and for these Eng-
lish-speaking citizens schools were a necessity.
The first school opened in the State was taught by
a Mr. Pierce at the " Boat Yard " on the " cut off "
above Mobile. Mr. Pierce was one of those " pioneers
of the mind " so frequently found in the Southern
States in frontier settlements during the early part of
the nineteenth century. No portrait or pen picture of
him has been preserved, save, " He was a typical
Connecticut Yankee," whatever that may mean. His
schoolhouse was a log cabin, with a door in one end,
a huge fire-place at the other, a window on each side,
closed by board shutters.
The furniture consisted of puncheon benches, and
a shelf around the wall, between the windows and
the door. This shelf served as a depository for books
and dinner buckets, also for a writing-desk. On a
shelf just outside the door the water-bucket was placed,
and on a nail beside it hung a long-handled gourd,
which served as a drinking-cup.
The pupils belonged to several nationalities French,
Spanish, American, Indian, and half-breeds of several
different amalgamations. They were of all shades of
complexion, from the fairest blonde to the ebony hue.
They diligently conned their lessons, and the sound
thereof loudly proclaimed the fact that the school
teacher had arrived.
The subjects taught were spelling, reading, writing,
and " ciphering." Books were scarce, and Webster's
Spell ing-Book served as speller and reading-book.
Slates also were scarce ; one often served a family of
three or four. Copy-books were home-made, and con-
58 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
sisted of a quire or half quire of fools-cap paper cov-
ered with a sheet of coarse brown paper. Pens were
made of goose quills.
Primitive as this school was, it is notable because
it ushered in a century of enlightenment.
No records of schools of the " Pierce type " are
extant, but attention must have been given to edu-
cation, and these schools must have multiplied rapidly,
because the Legislature of Mississippi Territory, of
which Alabama was then a part, granted a charter to
Washington Academy, located in St. Stephens, in
1811, only eight years after the first school began.
The next year, 1812, Green Academy in Huntsville
These academies were supported, at least in part, by
public funds; for in 1814 the Legislature appropriated
$1,000 for their use. Another academy, St. Stephens,
was chartered in 1817 by the Territorial Legislature of
Alabama, and the same Legislature appropriated 10
per cent, of the profits of the banks to the use of the
three academies Washington, St. Stephens, and
When the Alabama Territory was formed, none of
the academies for girls chartered by the Legislature
of Mississippi Territory were within the limits of
The School System of Alabama
The children of Alabama were not dependent on
private schools for the means of education. Alabama
was a Territory only two years, and by provision of
the act admitting Alabama as a State into the Union
of States, the sixteenth section of every township was
set apart for use of schools ; also two townships were
set apart for support of a " seminarv of learning."
Without delay the work of establishing a system of
schools was begun. The General Assembly, during its
first session (1819), passed an act appointing commis-
sioners to take charge of the school lands. The duties
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 59
of these commissioners was clearly defined by act of
Legislature in 1820. One clause of this act directs
that the lands be divided into farms of not less than
forty acres, and not more than one hundred and sixty
acres. For many years each Legislature spent much
time in discussing educational measures, and in en-
deavoring to perfect the school system.
In 1821 the Legislature passed an act requiring the
appointment of township trustees, and defining their
duties. The principal duty, of course, was to employ
teachers, but they were also required to supervise the
building of schoolhouses, to see that the furniture,
books, and stationery were kept in good order.
Again the school law was amended in 1821, by adop-
tion of an act requiring the examination of teachers,
and forbidding the trustees to employ any teacher who
could not pass a satisfactory examination in the studies
of the usual academic course, and who did not have a
good moral character. Much emphasis was laid on
this last requirement.
The expectation was, that the " sixteenth section "
fund would be sufficient to pay the whole expense of
the schools ; that is, teachers' salaries, building school-
houses, furnishing them, and also providing books,
slates, and stationery.
In sections where the land was rich and adapted to
agriculture the fund was ample for all these expenses,
and provided the means for a common-school educa-
tion for every child in the township.
These schools prospered in what is now known as
the agricultural section of the State, but in the now-
called mineral sections the fund was greatly inadequate
to the demand. The last named sections needed the
fund far more than the agricultural sections did. and
the great question was, how to equalize the school
While providing for common schools, the General
Assembly did not forget to provide for the establish-
ment of the university system one institution of
60 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
higher learning or university, and an academy in each
county; for in 1820 the University of Alabama was
established by act of Legislature. The two townships
set apart by Congress for the benefit of a " seminary
of higher learning " were applied to this university,
which was located at Tuscaloosa ; the fund being held
in trust by the State. The same Legislature made
provision for the support of the three academies al-
University for Women
The General Assembly, while making provision for
the education of boys and men, was not unmindful of
the claims of girls and women to equal educational
advantages. This recognition was incorporated in the
same act that established the University of Alabama
for men. One section of this act provided for the
establishment of a " branch of said university " for
" female education."
This bill passed with very little opposition ; the only
question raised was whether the State was financially
able to equip and support two institutions of " higher
learning." However, this consideration did not seem
to trouble the masses of the people very much, for so
deep-seated and so widespread was the interest in the
education of girls, that just two years after the pass-
age of the bill to establish the university, on December
24, 1822, the section of the original bill providing for
the establishment of a " branch of the university " for
" female education " was amended by adoption of sec-
tion 17, which reads as follows:
" There shall be also established three branches of
said university for female education, to be located at
such places as may be deemed by the Legislature most
for the public good, and the Legislature shall proceed
to locate and fix the sites of said branches at the same
time and by the same manner of election that the site
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 61
of the principal university is to be located, and said
branches shall each be governed by twelve directors to
be elected by the board of trustees of the University,
and government thereof shall be in all respects accord-
ing to the by-laws of the University, framed and or-
dained for that purpose."
It is true this grand scheme for higher education
of women was never put into operation, neither was
the act ever repealed ; hence it is reasonable to suppose
the men of that and succeeding generations neither
regretted their acts of justice and generosity nor
abandoned their lofty ideals.
The writer has made diligent search for some ex-
planation of the failure to put into effect the statute
establishing a university for women, but has failed to
find any mention of the subject subsequent to the adop-
tion of the act. Probably the financial embarrassment
that so long delayed the completion of the University
buildings and the opening of the school rendered the
realization of the " seventeenth section " an utter im-
For a short time, a few years, the finances of Ala-
bama were in a flourishing condition, so much so, that
the expenses of the State government were borne by
the surplus of the State banks, and the people were
exempt from taxation. But reverses, failures, and
panics came, and so much embarrassed was the State,
and so deplorable the condition of the people, that
Congress, at the urgent insistence of Hon. William R.
King, Senator from Alabama, passed a bill for the re-
lief of the State.
But even before this state of affairs culminated, the
trustees of the University found themselves greatly
embarrassed by lack of funds; the income from the
university lands proved greatly inadequate to the
amount necessary for the support of one school. This
deficiency was caused by the mistake of the commis-
sioners in selecting the two townships set apart for the
62 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
University, in what is now known as the " mineral
belt " of the State. At that time its true value was
Though this grand scheme never materialized, every
daughter of Alabama can have the proud consciousness
of the fact that the men of Alabama fully recognized
the justice of making provision for the education of
their daughters as well as for their sons. The fact is,
that the very first Legislature of Alabama (1819-20)
by the same " act of Legislature " proposed to provide
" a Seminary of Higher Learning " for men and
women alike, but not co-educational as the word is now
This action on the part of the General Assembly of
Alabama is unique in the history of the establishment
of State Universities. As yet, the subject of
" woman's rights " and co-educational advantages for
boys and girls had not claimed public attention, there-
fore no pressure was brought to bear upon the men
who projected this scheme. Furthermore, this act
places them in the rank of advanced thinkers and just
and honorable men.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 63
Academies for Girls
HAVING established the " sixteenth section " schools,
and so far as legislative enactment would do it, estab-
lished a " Seminary of Higher Learning " for men and
women, the next work was to provide for the connect-
ing link in the system to provide for academies.
Naturally these would be first located in the most
populous sections of the State. These sections were in
the southern part of the State, around Mobile, and
thence along the lower Alabama River ; the " Bigbee
Settlements " on the western border, and the settle-
ments in the valley of the Tennessee River.
The settlers of this last named section were largely
from that Scotch-Irish stock that has played so con-
spicuous a part in the development of the South. They
were noted for their intelligence and culture. In this
section there were several thriving towns. Of these,
Athens, in Limestone County, ranked second in popu-
lation; the population was constantly increasing, and
already several schools of primary and grammar-
school grades had been established, and an academy
was much needed.
Some enterprising citizens, among them the men
whose names appear in the charter as trustees, called
a meeting of the citizens to consider the educational
needs of the town. After some discussion a resolu-
tion to establish an academy for girls was adopted,
Athens Female Academy
was opened October, 1822, and on December 9, 1822,
just a few days before the " section 17," which estab-
lished a university for women, was adopted, a charter
64 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
was granted to this first academy in Alabama exclu-
sively for girls.
The trustees were Robert Beaty, John D. Carroll,
Beverly Hughes, Daniel Coleman, Andrew Foster,
John W. Smith, and Joshua Martin.
The corporation was declared perpetual, and em-
powered to buy and sell or otherwise dispose of the
property of the Academy as might seem best to the
trustees; and these trustees were empowered to make
such regulations for the government of the Academy
as were not repugnant to the law of the State or of
the United States.
Daniel Coleman and Joshua L. Martin were very
active in the interest of the Academy. These men be-
came quite prominent in the history of Alabama.
Judge Martin rendered valuable service to the State
at a time when the judiciary as well as the executive
department needed strong and fearless men of unim-
peachable integrity. It is not surprising, therefore,
that Athens took the initiative in so important an en-
terprise as the establishment of an academy for girls.
A few years after the incorporation of the Academy,
provision a teacher and one piano was made for a
course in music. Some time after this addition was
made, the advantages of the Academy were extended
to a course in drawing. Music was elective and an
extra, but drawing was taught to the whole school free
of extra charge.
A number of the distinguished men of Alabama
were natives of Limestone County, and many of their
wives were educated at the Athens Academy. This
Academy had a long and a prosperous career, and was
finally merged into the Athens Female Institute.
Tuscumbia Female Academy, 1826
Encouraged by the success of the Athens Academy,
the citizens of Tuscumbia decided to organize an
academy for girls and applied for a charter.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 65
The trustees named in the charter were Thomas
Wooldridge, Alexander A. Campbell, William H.
Wharton, and Robert B. Marshall.
The corporation was declared perpetual, and the
usual powers concerning acquiring, holding, and dis-
posing of property granted. Also the power to make
any regulation deemed advisable, provided it was not
repugnant to the constitution and laws of the State
and of the United States.
A music department was added to the usual academic
curriculum at the organization of the school. For a
time the school flourished, but misfortune came, and
after six years it became necessary to amend the char-
ter, to avoid closing the school.
The charter was approved January 13, 1826, and on
January 13, 1832, the following amendment was ap-
proved : " Whereas, the trustees of Tuscumbia
Academy appointed and incorporated by an act to
which this is an amendment, have ceased to act as such,
and a majority of the surviving said trustees having
removed from the State, without having appointed or
elected successors, be it enacted that Philip G. Godby,
Sterling R. Cockrill, William H. Wharton, Branham
Murrill, David Dreshler, and Micajah Tarver, and
their successors appointed or elected, shall be a body
politic and corporate by the name of Trustees of Tus-
cumbia Female Academy. Second and third section^
of act to which this is an amendment are hereby re-
vived. The powers granted to these trustees are the
same as those granted by the original charter."
The Academy thus revived continued with varying
success, until closed by the War between the States.
It was never reopened. The building was repaired
and remodeled, and used for the Public School of Tus-
During the first decade of Alabama history schools
66 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
did not flourish nor their number increase as the people
had expected and as was very desirable.
The " sixteenth section " lands were not good agri-
cultural lands in many parts of the State, and the
commissioner found it very difficult to maintain the
schools even when supplemented by tuition fees. The
lack of funds prevented the completion of the univer-
sity buildings, and perhaps the same reason prevented
the establishment of many academies. However, dur-
ing this decade several academies for boys were estab-
lished and two for girls. This did not discourage the
friends of education of girls or incline its advocates
to abandon the cause. On the contrary, they deter-
mined to make more strenuous efforts, and accordingly
the General Assembly prepared a " memorial to Con-
gress in behalf of academies for girls."
Memorial to Congress
The work of establishing schools for girls progressed
slowly, though interest in the cause never died, as is
manifest from the following Memorial by the General
Assembly to the Congress of the United States. It
was entitled: "Memorial (Joint) Regulating a
grant of lands by Congress of United States, for use
of a Female Academy in each County of the State."
" The Senate and House of Representatives of the
State of Alabama, in General Assembly convened,
respectfully represent to the Congress of the United
States: That your memorialists have witnessed with
great pleasure the munificence and liberality of your
honorable body in the promotion of education by grant
of 1 6th section for use of common schools in every
township, and of other lands for the advancement of
an asylum for the use of deaf and dumb, and for the
establishment and maintenance of a university, and
whilst they have been greatly benefited and much
pleased with such liberality in the promotion of objects
so intimately and essentially interwoven with the moral
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 67
and political prospects of the country, they respectfully
suggest that another subject of equal or superior
claims upon your liberality and munificence has not
received the attention due to the importance which
properly belongs to it, either from our own citizens or
their Representatives in the National Legislature, to
wit : the proper and necessary education of the females
of this free and happy Republic. Your memorialists
beg the indulgence of your honorable body, in remark-
ing that the ornaments of this and every other country,
so -far as relates to talents, learning, and virtue, rest
their claims mainly on the early impressions made by
mothers. That it seldom happens that impressions
derived from this source are calculated to sap the
foundations of morality or to injure in the smallest
degree the best interests of society, but, on the contrary,
the education, information, and examples drawn from
them exalt and ennoble our character, and constitute
the foundation and prop of our most estimable virtues
and consequent prosperity in life. Your memorialists
derive much pleasure from the reflection that the peo-
ple of this State have aroused from their lethargy upon
this all-important subject, and are now making exer-
tions to compensate in some measure for their former
apathy, by laudable attempts on their part to promote
female education. But your memorialists would here
remark that common schools are not places at which
females can receive more than the first rudiments of
education, and the importance of institutions exclu-
sively for the use of female education must be admitted
" Your memorialists therefore respectfully request,
that your honorable body will grant to the State of
Alabama as much as two sections of land for each
county and to be exclusively applied to the erection
and support of an academy in each county of the State
for the education of females. Your memorialists
sincerely believe that by the selection of the best un-
appropriated lands and prudent management of the
68 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
same, that no portion of the public land has been here-
tofore, or will be hereafter applied in a manner to
accomplish more good: Therefore, be it resolved,
That our Senators be instructed, and our Representa-
tives requested to use their best exertions to obtain
the object of this memorial. And be it further re-
solved, That it shall be the duty of the Governor to
transmit, as early as may be, a copy of this memorial
to each of our Senators and Representatives in Con-
gress, and one to the President of the United States.
Approved January 13, 1830."
This memorial did not receive attention from Con-
gress, but the people had awakened from their apathy,
and academies began to multiply rapidly.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 69
Academies In and Around Tuscaloosa
THE State University had been located in Tus-
caloosa, and when Cahaba proved an undesirable loca-
tion for the capital of the State, Tuscaloosa was chosen
as the best location for the capital. Thus the little
town became a place of much importance and man>
interests centered there.
Before the first decade of Statehood had passed, the
Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists had estab-
lished churches in the town, and were earnestly advo-
cating the establishment of schools.
Common schools had been established, and in 1829
Mr. Edward Sims, an energetic business man. an
ardent Methodist, and a strong advocate of higher
education of women, as a step in that direction built
a large brick house which he offered to the Methodist
Conference for an academy for girls as long as the
Conference would keep a school in it.
A school called " Sims's Female Academy " was
opened in the building in October, 1829, and on Janu-
ary 15, 1830, a charter for this school was approved
by the Legislature of Alabama. This charter, after
granting the usual judiciary powers, and declaring the
corporation perpetual, and giving the trustees power
to establish and break the common seal at will, also
empowered the trustees to make such by-laws as would
not be repugnant to the laws and constitution of the
State and of the United States ; and provided that the
trustees should not at any time hold property of greater
value than twenty thousand dollars; and provided no
religious tenets to the exclusion of others should be
taught. This charter also prohibited the trustees from
70 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
dealing in notes, or bills of exchange, or exercising
There is a strange inconsistency between Mr. Sims's
avowed intention of establishing a Methodist academy
and the positive statement in the charter that the tenets
of any one church should not be taught to the exclu-
sion of others. It is very certain that Mr. Sims was
disappointed, and the Sims's Academy passed out of
existence in 1830, after continuing only one year.
It is very uncertain whether the Methodist Confer-
ence ever accepted Mr. Sims's offer, but if it did, its
connection with the school very soon ceased.
Since this school continued for so short a time, little
is known of it, no records are extant, nothing to show
what the curriculum was, except the name " Acad-
When Mr. Sims decided to close the school he sold
the building to Dr. Leach, and it is still known as
the " Leach Place/'
Tuscaloosa Female Association
About the same time the Sims's Academy was char-
tered, at the session of the Legislature of 1830 there
was chartered an association called " The Tuscaloosa
Female Association," whose object was the " promo-
tion of female education, and a higher standard of
morals in the community."
This association thought an undenominational
school preferable to a denominational school. Mr.
Sims did not oppose their plans, but to some extent co-
operated with this association in establishing the Tus-
caloosa Female Academy, which was chartered Janu-
ary 15, 1831.
The first provision of this charter was: Presi-
dent and trustees and stockholders of the association
founded in Tuscaloosa, in 1830, are hereby created a
body politic and corporate in law, with powers to
establish in Tuscaloosa a female academy according
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 71
to any plan and system they may see fit. They may
have a common seal, changeable at pleasure."
The usual powers concerning acquisition and dis-
posal of property were granted, and the following ad-
ditional powers : " And finally to do all such things,
by themselves, their agents, trustees or servants as may
be necessary and proper to carry into effect said Female
Academy. The affairs of the corporation are to be
transacted by the president and the trustees. Corpora-
tion property to be exempt from taxation."
Ideas concerning morals have so changed that the
next provision of the charter seems rather a strange
one to twentieth century people; but in the early part
of the nineteenth century it was not uncommon to call
in the aid of the lottery for educational and civic pur-
poses. " Said corporation shall have power to raise
by lottery in one or more classes upon such scheme as
they may devise, any sum or sums of money not ex-
ceeding fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), to be applied
to the use of said Academy." Having granted this
power it was only consistent that they should make
the following prohibition : " Said Academy shall be
purely literary and scientific; and trustees are prohib-
ited from the adoption of any system of education
which shall provide for the inculcation of the peculiar
tenets or doctrine of any religious denomination."
The trustees, thus granted almost unlimited powers,
and provided with a lottery, indulged in " great ex-
In the Tuscaloosa Gazette of September 10, 1830,
under heading, " Tuscaloosa Female Academy," A.
Ready, Esq., secretary of the board of trustees, made
the following announcement : " A union between the
' Tuscaloosa Female Educational Society ' and ' Sims's
Academy ' has been effected. The first session of the
Tuscaloosa Female Academy commenced on Friday,
September 6, 1830, under management of Miss
Brewer, Miss Howe, and Mrs. Robinson. Mr. A.
Pfister and Mrs. Patrick have charge of the music
73 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
department. The board is making arrangements for
the erection of a suitable edifice."
This beginning was a favorable augury for the suc-
cess of the school. Music was a great attraction, as
every one was anxious for his daughter to have a
musical education. Mr. Pfister had a favorable repu-
tation as a music teacher, and he also taught French,
which was another popular study.
Notwithstanding the favorable conditions under
which the academy began, its career, for some unex-
plained reason it did not meet the expectations of its
friends and they agreed to promote the establishment
of the Alabama Female Institute. (This institution
will be treated under another chapter.)
Wesley an Academy
This Academy, as its name implies, was under
Methodist direction, but there is no evidence that it
was ever the property of the Methodist Conference
or was controlled by it. Its existence was largely due
to the energy and zeal of Mr. Edward Sims, who be-
gan to plan for the establishment of a Methodist
academy for girls, as soon as the Tuscaloosa Female
Academy was fairly under way. What pressure was
brought to bear upon him to induce him to abandon
the establishment of a Methodist school, when the Sims
Academy was established, or why the charter of the
school he had projected so positively forbade its being
a Methodist school, cannot now be ascertained; but
certain it is, that, though he relinquished his scheme,
and united with the Tuscaloosa Female Educational
Association " in establishing an undenominational
school, The Tuscaloosa Female Academy, he never
entirely abandoned his intention of establishing" a
Methodist academy for girls. He made a decided
effort to have the Alabama Institute a Methodist
school, but failing in that attempt, he purchased the
McLester residence, a large brick building in the
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 73
suburbs of the town, and in it the Wesleyan Academy
was opened in 1834. Its charter was approved in
At last Mr. Sims's long desired school was estab-
lished, and the following announcement was made,
July 10, 1836:
" The Wesleyan Female Academy will be prepared
by opening of fall session to accommodate one hun-
dred and fifty pupils. After all our enlarging our fear
is we shall not have room for all who will apply. The
main building and the boarding-house are now
finished, and the large brick building will be finished
in a few weeks. Other buildings and the grounds
will undergo thorough repair.
" Signed, J. FOSTER/'
Miss Chapman was the principal and Mr. Pfister
had charge of the music department.
Mr. Sims offered this school also to the Methodist
Conference, but whether it was accepted or not the
record does not say. However, it had a brief exist-
ence. Tuscaloosa was too small to support so many
schools, and one of them exclusively a Methodist
school. The buildings were sold to Mrs. R. E. Fitts
for $6,000, and Mr. Sims abandoned the idea of a
Washington and Lafayette Academy
This academy was chartered about the same time as
the Wesleyan, 1835, an< ^ attained its greatest popular-
ity in 1837, when Alexander M. Robinson was prin-
cipal. It continued to flourish for six or seven years,
and then its popularity began to wane, and about 1846
it was closed and the buildings sold for a private
residence. John S. Boale purchased the property and
thoroughly renovated it, and presented it to his
daughter, Mrs. Eddins. In 1905 Sloan purchased it
74 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
and converted it into a veritable palace, and it is now
the handsomest residence in Tuscaloosa.
Location of Schools: The Athenaeum was on
East Major street; The Institute, Ninth street and
Twenty-second avenue; Washington and Lafayette,
Tenth street and Twenty-fourth avenue; Wesleyan
Academy, Fourth street and Twenty-fourth and
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 75
THE interest in the establishment of academies for
girls seems to have revived during the thirties; and
from that time until 1860 twenty-one academies ex-
clusively for girls and sixty-six academies for
boys and girls were chartered ; besides these there were
seven academies for girls whose charters granted the
privilege of conferring certificates or diplomas, and ten
for boys and girls granting such privilege.
The academies exclusively for girls were :
Somerville, Morgan County, chartered January
Moulton, Jackson County, chartered January 21,
Wesleyan, Tuscaloosa, December 15, 1835;
Talladega, Talladega, January 5, 1836;
Demopolis, Demopolis, December 23, 1836;
Hayneville, Lowndes County, December 15,
Gainsville, Sumter County, December 23, 1837;
Farmer's, Carterville, Butler County, December
Livingston, Sumter County, January 15, 1840;
Spring Grove, Russell County, January 15, 1840:
Warcoochee, January 15, 1840;
Dayton Association, Marengo County, February
14, 1843 ;
Florence, Limestone County, March 24, 1848;
Uchee, Russell County, March 3, 1848;
Newbern, Green County, March i, 1848;
Carrollton, Pickens County, February 12, 1850;
Citronelle, Mobile County, February 5, 1858;
Palmyra, Barbour County, January n, 1860;
76 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Newbern, Green County, February 9, 1852.
Academies granting honors:
Northport, Tuscaloosa, December 15, 1835;
Jacksonville, Calhoun County, January 28, 1837;
Turnbull, Monroe County, February i, 1843;
Aberfoil, February 15, 1843;
Claiborn, Wilcox County, January 13, 1844;
Mesopotamia, Eutaw, Green County, January 17,
Gainsville, Sumter County, February 8, 1854;
Mountain Home, Lawrence County, February 9
Irwinton, Barbour County, 1835.
Eufaula Female Academy, Eufaula, Alabama, 1844
Eufaula was first settled in 1833, an d incorporated
as Irwinton in 1837. The Irwinton Academy for
girls was incorporated in 1836. By requirement of
its charter it was to be strictly a literary school, and
peculiar tenets of every denomination were prohibited.
The usual privileges of buying, selling, and disposing
of property were granted, but the amount of property
that could be owned by the corporation was limited to
twenty thousand dollars. This charter was approved
January 9, 1836, but was amended December 22, 1836.
This amendment referred mostly to property rights,
but it also empowered the trustees to confer honors on
graduates. In December of the same year an academy
for boys was chartered, and in 1841 these academies
were consolidated and the charter for this school was
approved December 20, 1841.
The name was changed from Irwinton to Eufaula
in 1843, an d in 1844 t^ e Eufaula Female Academy
was established. The " act to incorporate the Irwin-
ton Female Academy," also the " act to consolidate
Irwinton Male and Female Academy," were repealed.
This act was approved January 17, 1844.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 77
The school question was by no means settled, for
the next year another change was made, and the
several acts incorporating the Eufaula Female
Academy and the Alabama Military and Scientific
Institute were repealed and all property belong-
ing to said corporation, also all property belong-
ing to the late Eufaula Male and Female Academy of
Irwinton, was vested in the body corporate of the Male
and Female Academy. This act was approved Janu-
ary 27, 1845. J ust wnv a ^ these changes were made
does not now appear; one fact is well substantiated
at no time were the so-called male and female acad-
The last arrangement seems to have lasted until the
academy was merged into the public school, the build-
ings being used for the public school of Eufaula.
The interest in education seems to have been great,
for in spite of the many changes Eufaula always has
had good schools. A few years after the Eufaula
Male and Female Academy was chartered the Metho-
dist Church established a college in Eufaula, which
flourished for a number of years; and was finally
merged into the Eufaula High School.
Union Female College Alabama Brenau,
In 1853 the citizens of Eufaula decided to establish
an undenominational school for the higher education
of women, and in 1854 they put this determination into
practical effect by the opening of what was known
as Union Female College for more than fifty years.
This school belongs now to the Odd Fellows, the
Masons, and the city of Eufaula. The founders ex-
perienced much difficulty in maintaining the high
standard they had planned, and to complete for patron-
age with institutions maintained by the treasury of
the State and denominational support.
The decline began in the seventies, but under able
and persevering presidents it was able to keep its doors
78 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
open, with varying degres of success, until 1905, when
for lack of patronage and means the school was
abandoned, as its friends thought, for all time.
Just at this time Presidents VanHoose and Pearce,
of Brenau College-Conservatory, Gainsville, Georgia,
decided to extend the sphere of usefulnes of Brenau
in other States. One of the first cities to attract their
attention was beautiful Eufaula, situated on the
Chattahoochee. When the citizens of Eufaula learned
that there was a possibility of inducing these gentle
men to undertake the task of founding an institution,
they responded instantly to the opportunity.
A subscription of $1,500 was quickly raised for the
purpose of putting the old buildings in first-class re-
pair, and a lease of ten years, free of charge, was
offered the Brenau association. The offer was ac-
The old building of the Union Female College had
been christened " Minerva Hall," on account of the
quaint wooden figure of a woman which crowns the
building, and which, somewhat facetiously, was
christened " Minerva " by the students. This figure
has stood guard over the College for more than fifty
years, and has a sacred place in the memory of many
an old-time student. By the terms of the original
charter the property was given to the control of three
fraternal orders, the Masons, Odd Fellows, and the
Sons of Temperance, and the board of trustees was
composed of members elected by these orders.
When the Sons of Temperance ceased to exist its
interest was transferred to the city of Eufaula.
For many years this institution was recognized as
one of the foremost institutions of learning for women
in the eastern section of the State. It did not close
its doors during the War between the States, and dur-
ing the Reconstruction period, when educational af r
fairs were in a chaotic state, it was a real blessing to
have this well-established school of high grade to
which girls could be sent, and where they could study
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 79
free from the interruptions of political or religious dis-
cussions ; for by the terms of the charter no tenets of
any religious sect were to be taught; and the College
has always been non-denominational, though all de-
nominations are represented by members of the faculty
and board of trustees.
The present management has restored the school to
its former popularity and efficiency, and in some re-
spects the school enjoys a greater popularity than ever
before. The music department has been much en-
larged, and the pupils attain a higher proficiency than
ever before. New departments have been introduced
and new buildings erected to meet the educational
demands of the present day.
Several degrees are now conferred, whereas for-
merly only one the A. B. was granted.
During the commencement in June, 1908, the
alumnae held a reunion and the essays of the olden
time were read, and compared favorably with those
of the present students ; also papers were read and dis-
cussions held which were calculated to show that the
old-time training was thorough and lasting.
80 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Alabama Female Institute, Tuscaloosa, Alabama,
THE friends of this school proposed to raise the
standard of education for girls, to extend the curric-
ulum, and to establish a school of collegiate grade.
The Institute was the heir of the Tuscaloosa Academy,
and thus owned commodious buildings and a suitable
equipment for the departments of music, art, and
natural science, as well as a boarding department.
The school opened November, 1833, but was not
chartered until January 9, 1835.
This charter empowered the trustees to grant such
rewards and confer such honors on graduates as might
be deemed expedient, and conferred the usual powers
relating to purchase and disposal of property, but
made no stipulation as to amount of property.
The merging of one school into another seems to
have been authorized by the Legislature, for one sec-
tion of the charter granted to the Alabama Female In-
stitute reads as follows : " The lots, grounds, and
buildings erected by the trustees of the Tuscaloosa
Female Academy now the property of the trustees
named in this charter, together with all other buildings
they may erect or grounds they may purchase for the
exclusive use of the said female institution, shall be
exempt from taxation whatever."
From this statement it would seem that the trustees
of the Tuscaloosa Female Academy had made exten-
sive preparation for maintaining their school ; and it
would be quite interesting if the causes of the merging
of one school into another could now be known.
The first, Sims' s Academy, continued only one year,
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 81
and was merged into the Tuscaloosa Female Academy,
which had an existence of three years and was merged
into the Alabama Institute.
It is almost certain that the curricula of the first
and second were nearly identical, and the teachers the
same for both, therefore the character of the schools
could have had little to do with the change.
However, the Institute was very popular and quite
successful as to numbers. According to an old cata-
logue, 1836, only three years after its commencement,
there were 10 teachers connected with the school, and
184 pupils; 60 in the primary department and 124 in
the advanced department.
The trustees of the Institute for the year ending
July 14, 1836, were Hon. Peter Martin, president;
Wiley J. Bearing, secretary ; John O. Cummins, treas-
urer; John F. Wallace, James H. Bearing, H. C. Kid-
der, William H. Williams just the same, with the
exception of John J. Webster, who had retired, as the
trustees named in the charter, January 9, 1835.
The following extract from an old catalogue will
show something of the views of educators of that early
" This institution proceeds upon the principle that
education does not consist merely in acquiring knowl-
edge, or in unfolding the reasoning powers, or facul-
ties, or in cultivating the moral feelings, or in forming
the manners, or in developing the physical powers;
but in the pursuit of all these objects combined or
rather, in rendering the mind the fittest possible instru-
ment for discovering, applying, and obeying the laws
under which God has placed the universe; if either of
these objects be pursued exclusively, the result is, the
character is not well balanced.
" The object of this institution is, to aid young
ladies to educate themselves to answer the great end
of their being to enjoy and impart happiness.
" The system of government is really one of self-
government, induced by the principles of moral recti-
82 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
tude. The interests of teachers and pupils are one and
the same, and the co-operation of both to promote the
general good renders the business of instruction and
study, of communicating and receiving instruction
The health of the pupils was a prime consideration
with the management; provision for exercise in the
open air, and suitable recreation hours was made.
" Calisthenics, designed to give ease, grace, and elas-
ticity of motion, and erect forms, and bodily and men-
tal vigor, is a daily exercise in the institution. Indeed,
the entire arrangements, both general and particular,
are conducive to health/'
From an old catalogue the following classification
and curriculum have been copied :
" After completing the primary studies, the pupils
are arranged in three classes: junior, middle, and
senior; pupils ,who pass a satisfactory examination
may enter either class.
" Junior Class : English grammar exercises,
analyzing, critical reading of the poets, transpositions,
etc. Watts on the Mind, ancient geography, intro-
ductory lessons in botany, political economy, algebra,
rhetoric commenced, philosophy of natural history,
ancient and modern history Worcester's Elements of
History, with Goldsmith's Greece, Rome, and Eng-
land and Grimshazv's France.
" Middle Class : Geometry Euclid or Legendre;
natural history Olmstead's; chemistry, astronomy,
botany, physiology, evidences of Christianity, eccles-
"Senior Class: Geometry finished; rhetoric
concluded; mental philosophy Upham's; Logic
Whateley's; moral philosophy Wayland's; natural
theology, Milton's Paradise Lost, analogy of natural
and revealed religion."
Latin was studied throughout the course, and
usually French also ; vocal music, drawing and needle-
work were taught to the whole school without extra
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 83
charge, and competent teachers for modern languages
and music were employed. Reading, spelling (until
the pupils were proficient in spelling), composition,
writing, and vocal music were daily exercises through-
out the course; also calisthenics and such other exer-
cises as tended to advance a " moral, intellectual,
physical, and polite education." A part of every Fri-
day afternoon was devoted to ornamental needle-
The equipment included a philosophical and a chem-
ical apparatus, and a telescope, maps and globes, but
just how complete this equipment was cannot now be
It was the original intention of the founders of the
State University to establish a " branch of the Uni-
versity for female education," but this intention was
never put into effect. However, a few years after the;
establishment of the Alabama Institute the regents of
the University decided to extend the advantages of
the University to this school, by allowing its classes
to attend such lectures of the professors of the Univer-
sity as the principal of the school should select, especi-
ally those lectures on natural science and mathematics.
The first principal of this school was Rev. W. H.
Williams; his principal teachers were Miss Maria Belle
Brooks (afterward Mrs. Stafford) and Miss Abby
Fitch (afterward Mrs. Searcy).
In 1842 Professor and Mrs. Caroline Lee Hentz
took charge of the school.
In 1852 Miss Lavinia Moore was principal and the
assistant teachers of the collegiate department were
Miss Mary W. Humphreys, Miss Martha A. Inge, and
Miss Sarah W. Bigelow.
Professor and Mrs. Stafford again became principals
in 1856. A few years later they associated with them-
selves, Mrs. W. C. Richardson, and Mrs. R. E. Rodes,
widow of General Rodes. They retained charge of
the Institute without interruption, except during a few
months while Tuscaloosa was occupied by Federal
84 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
troops, until Professor Stafford's death. Mrs. Staf-
ford continued in charge until 1888, when she sold the
property to the city of Tuscaloosa for public school
purposes and left the State.
(The information on which this sketch is founded
was furnished by Hon. W. C. Richardson of Tus-
caloosa, also the catalogues; the charter is on record
in the Acts of Legislature of 1834-5.)
The Athenaeum, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1835-1908
This school has had many and various vicissitudes
during its existence from 1835 to the present time.
When it was organized the Baptist denomination had
not established a school for girls in Tuscaloosa, and
was anxious to do so. They bought the large com-
modious brick house then recently built by Dr. Drick,
and situated in the suburbs, and opened a school, with
Rev. James Dagg, principal. Dr. Alva Woods, presi-
dent of the University of Alabama, was president of
the board of trustees. Mr. Dagg did not enter upon
his duties immediately, and until his arrival the school
was conducted by one of the professors, Rev. J. C.
Koeney of South Carolina.
The school did not prosper as its founders had
hoped. The Baptist denomination made strenuous
efforts to maintain this school, and from time to time
changed the principal, in the hope of finding some one
who could make it popular.
The last principal who had it in charge under the
original management was Professor Saunders and his
wife, who had charge from 1859 to ^65 ; then Dr.
J. H. Foster and Rev. Eldred Teague leased the build-
ing and conducted a school for boys. After a year or
two the building was sold to Chancellor Landon C.
Garland for a private residence. When Dr. Garland
left Tuscaloosa he sold the building to the North
Alabama Conference, and it became known as the
Methodist College and was restored to its original pur-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 85
pose, a school of high grade for girls. After a year
or two the Conference sold it to Rev. B. F. Larrabee,
who endeavored to have a first-class school ; but not
succeeding as he had hoped to do, he sold out to Prof.
Alonzo Hill, who continued the school with more or
less success until his death, when his widow leased the
building to a Mr. Perry, who continued for a year or
two, and cancelled the lease; then Mrs. Hill sold the
building to the North Alabama Conference, or rather
to a member of the Conference, who donated it to the
Conference. It is still the property of the Conference
and under its supervision.
After the last transfer the charter was amended.
This amendment of February 7, 1860, granted all the
powers and privileges usually conferred on colleges in
the United States, and changed the name from Athen-
aeum to Tuscaloosa Female College.
The school opened under the new management Octo-
ber, 1860, with Rev. W. G. Melton, president. Since
that time the buildings have been completely renovated,
and two large buildings erected; apparatus bought, a
modern gymnasium fitted up, several hundred volumes
added to the library, and the equipment for a thorough
course in music and art supplied; the curriculum ex-
tended to embrace a commercial course ; in short, it is
a modern school. Dr. Melton resigned in 1901, but
the school has continued to flourish under the manage-
ment of B. F. Giles.
86 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Marion Female Seminary , Marion, Alabama,
THIS was the name given to the school established
by the " Society for Promotion of Education," and
after the Baptists withdrew in 1838 this school con-
tinued without any other charter privileges than those
granted to the association.
In 1841 William E. Jones was the owner of the
stock of this association, and he applied for a charter
for the school and for management of the stock. This
charter granted him the power to sell to parties shares
in this seminary not exceeding fifty dollars each nor
less than that sum. " The purchasers of these shares
shall be known as the ' Marion Female Association/
and by that name and style shall be entitled to buy, sell
or dispose of the shares of said Association ; they shall
have judiciary powers, and make such regulations as
are not repugnant to the constitution and laws of this
State and United States. The amount of property
shall not exceed five thousand ($5,000) more than the
value of said property and building of said Associa-
tion. Purchaser of stock shall be liable to amount of
stock he owns and no more. All stock or shares of
said seminary shall be a separate and not a joint in-
terest or property." The property was exempt from
taxation, and certificates of stock were assignable.
This charter was approved January 9, 1841. The
stockholders were the trustees.
An amendment which empowered the trustees to
grant diplomas, certificates, or other evidences of
scholarship; and to own property to the amount
of fifty thousand dollars, and confirming the name
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 87
" Marion Female Seminary,'* was approved Decem-
ber 14, 1841.
This school has three departments, primary, aca-
demic, and collegiate, and schools of music, art, elocu-
tion, and physical culture. The equipment includes a
library, chemical and physical apparatus, a cabinet of
minerals and fossils. The art department has a liberal
assortment of models, studies, and other facilities for
art study. The building is not large, but it has been
remodeled and made up to date, and is lighted with
electricity. Only fifty boarders can be accommodated
Recently a business department has been added to
the school. It includes stenography, typewriting, and
telegraphy. Also a large, well-ventilated gymnasium
has been added to the equipment.
This school has had an unbroken and fairly pros-
perous career, and though its annual enrollment has
never been large, the names of hundreds of women who
have been useful and honored citizens are enrolled
among its alumnae.
Centenary Institute, Summer -sfield, Alabama, 1838
The beginning of this Institute dates back to 1829,
when the Valley Creek Academy was established.
The charter of this school, which was approved Janu-
ary 6, 1829, authorized the sale of the sixteenth sec-
tion in which the school was situated and the proceeds
of the sale to be applied to the said school. The pur-
chaser of this sixteenth section was T. J. Goldsby, and
the patent issued for the protection of said purchaser
is still in the possession of his descendants.
The school was a success as a local institution, but
the trustees, two-thirds of whom were Methodists, ad-
vocated the establishment of a school of a higher grade,
and in order to celebrate the centennial of Methodism,
they projected a Centenary Institute; or rather, two
schools under that name. Accordingly, they enlarged
88 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
the building used for the boys' academy, and purchased
several acres, and built a large two-story brick build-
ing with wings, for the girls' school. This school was
known as the Centenary. Its first session opened
October, 1838, and the attendance was good, quite as
large as its friends expected, but not as large as they
hoped to make it.
The first president did not meet expectations, and in
1843 tne board elected Rev. A. H. Mitchell of Georgia,
who took charge of the school October, 1843, an d con-
tinued in charge until 1856, when he returned to the
During the time of his administration the school
flourished as to numbers, and the standard of scholar-
ship was high. During this period many sons and
daughters of Methodist preachers were trained for
Rev. W. A. Montgomery and Dr. Rivers each for a
few years was president of Centenary, and from 1865
Prof. William Vaughn, now of Vanderbilt, was presi-
dent until 1872, when he resigned to go to Franklin,
After Professor Vaughn left the school became a
local school again, and in a few years was merged into
the public school. However, the buildings were
owned by the Alabama Conference, and when the Ala-
bama Conference decided to establish an Orphan Home
the building was appropriated to that purpose.
This orphanage was especially interesting to Dr.
Mitchell, who had always felt a deep interest in Cen-
tenary from his first connection with it, and his last
work was supervising the building of a fence around
the farm. He contracted a severe cold while thus
engaged, and from it he never rallied. This work of
love proved too arduous for a man of ninety-five.
The charter of this institution was twice amended.
In 1843 five trustees were added to the board of
trustees, and by the amendment approved January 6,
1845, tne trustees were authorized and empowered to
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 89
grant diplomas and confer degrees under the same
rules and regulations governing all other institutions
of a similar character.
The first diplomas were granted June, 1845, when a
class of nine young ladies graduated. They repre-
sented the nine muses. Miss Lucinda Swift repre-
sented Clio, muse of history, and Miss Sallie Smith
of Orrville represented Euterpe, muse of music.
These two are the only ones surviving ; the others have
been graduated from life's school and have joined the
The first president was a Mr. Horton, who was not
a success as a teacher of girls, and Mr. D. I. Harrison
was appointed to supply his place until a president
could be found. This president was Rev. A. H.
Mitchell, who remained fourteen years. Then Mr.
J. N. Montgomery was president until the War be-
tween the States began, when he raised a regiment and
went to the front, and was succeeded by Dr. R. H.
Rivers. In 1865 Dr. R. K. Hargrove succeeded him.
Prof. J. W. Vaughn was his successor, and then Rev.
A. D. McVoy took charge and remained a number of
years. The school was declining all the time, and at
last was only a small local school, which was sup-
planted by the public school and the building was
closed for several years.
(The material for this sketch was obtained from the
Acts of the Legislature, 1838, 1840, 1845, an< 3 from
letters from Rev. A. H. Mitchell, D.D. ^Mrs. B. M.
Woolsey, nee Swift, gave the information concerning
the first graduating class.)
Dallas Academy, Selma, Alabama, 1839-1908
In 1838 certain public-spirited ladies of Selma, feel-
ing the importance of having good schools for their
children, organized what was known as the " Ladies'
Education Society " of Selma, and began to raise
money to establish a school of high grade. Among
90 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
the most diligent of these may be mentioned Mrs.
William Treadwell, Mrs. Phillip J. Weaver, Mrs. Wil-
liam Waddell, Mrs. Elias Parkman, Mrs. Isaiah Mor-
gan, Mrs. Hugh Ferguson, Mrs. Robert L. Downman,
Mrs. Robert Patteson, Mrs. John F. Conoley, Mrs.
Andrew Hunter, Mrs. Stephen Maples, and Mrs.
Uriah Griggs. In 1839 tne Society was incorporated
by the General Assembly with the following gentlemen
as trustees: Nicholas Childers, Robert N. Philpot,
John W. Lapsley, Elias Parkman, John W. Jones,
Jeremiah Pitman, and Harris Brantly.
In 1844 William Johnson, a wealthy citizen,
donated to the Ladies' Educational Society a lot. By
the united efforts of the Society and the Masonic
fraternity a brick house was erected, the first floor for
school purposes, and the second for a Masonic lodge.
Professor Lucius B. Johnson and his wife were em-
ployed, and opened the school, calling it Dallas Male
and Female Academy. The school soon grew so large
as to require the whole building, and the trustees
bought the interest of the Masons.
In 1845 it was deemed best to change the plan. The
new institution was incorporated as the Dallas Male
and Female Academy with a new board of trustees.
The act incorporating the Ladies' Educational Society
was repealed, and their property rights and privileges
were transferred to the new board of trustees. This
board was made self-perpetuating by the act of incor-
poration and has so continued until the present time.
The building was still inadequate to the demands of
The charter of this school was amended January 25,
1845. This amendment granted the power to grant
diplomas and to confer degrees, and all the privileges
usually enjoyed by institutions of like grade in the
The Society, continuing as a voluntary organiza-
tion, began to raise money for another building, by
giving concerts and other entertainments. They re-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 91
ceived large subscriptions from the public-spirited men
of the place, and the donation of another lot by the
same benevolent citizen, William Johnson. The pres-
ent Dallas Academy stands on this lot. The original
brick building was used for boys, and the new build-
ing for girls.
Some Northern teachers were brought out and other
teachers from among our own people were employed,
and thus an excellent corps was organized. Among
the latter were two Misses Meek, sisters of Prof. A. B.
Meek of the State University. Each year a teacher
of instrumental and a teacher of vocal music and an
instructor in military tactics were employed. Success
crowned the efforts of the able principal and his wife
and the efficient corps of teachers. The school at-
tracted citizens to the place and thus increased its
business and prosperity.
These were the flourishing days of Dallas Academy.
Rigid discipline was maintained and a high grade of
scholarship required. The sessions lasted nine months
and were closed with public examinations, continued
morning and evening for a week, with military drills
and concerts at night. Large numbers of people came
from different parts of the State to witness these clos-
ing exercises. It is stated that as many as four thou-
sand persons were present on one occasion. The
crowds were so great that the exercises were held in
the city warehouses, the buildings being entirely too
small. " Hundreds of the best men and women in
Alabama and other States," says " Hardy's History of
Selma," " graduated during this period of Dallas Acad-
emy, and remember with gratitude until this day
Prof. Lucius B. Johnson, and his wife, Harriet B.
In 1851 the Johnsons, under strong inducements,
left Selma to establish a school in Camden, Alabama,
and Dallas Academy was placed under the charge of
Rev. A. R. Holcombe. Under the administration of
the Rev. Mr. Holcombe the school waned, its popular-
92 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
ity and patronage declined, its classes withdrew, and
with them the income, until the trustees found them-
selves in debt, and were compelled to sell the brick
building and lot to Col. P. J. Weaver, to refund the
money he had advanced for them.
In October, 1853, Professor Johnson and his wife
returned to Selma to take charge of Dallas Academy.
Professor Johnson died soon after his arrival, a victim
of yellow fever. Mrs. Johnson continued the school
and conducted it successfully until 1864, when she re-
tired to private life. She died in Hartford, Connecti-
cut, in 1887, closing a long and useful life, cherished
in the memories of many Alabamians of the present
In 1866 the trustees began to prepare to reopen the
school that had been temporarily suspended. The re-
maining building was repaired and suitably furnished.
Prof. W. B. Seals of Columbus, Georgia, was placed
in charge of the Academy, and continued with good
classes for two years. Dependent upon tuition fees
for the support of himself and family, and the pay-
ment of assistant teachers, Professor Seals did not find
the place sufficiently remunerative, and resigned the
position at the close of the session of 1868.
In May, 1868, Dr. Albert Barnes Sears, agent of
the fund donated by George Peabody, for the benefit
of education in the Southern States, visited Selma, and
after consultation with some of the prominent citizens
made the following proposition : " The Trustees of
the Peabody fund will pay $2,000 if the people of
Selma will raise $4,000, or more, to provide free edu-
cation for all the white children of the city, in the com-
mon English branches for one year, the school to be
under the control of some committee of men that shall
fairly represent the public interests of the schools, to
be appointed by the citizens who contribute to the
On the 1 4th of May a public meeting was held to
consider the above proposition, at which it was re-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 93
solved to make an effort to establish free schools in
Selma. A committee consisting of Messrs. Joseph
Hardie, Geo. O. Baker, Geo. Peacock, Ed. Woods,
and B. Eliasburg, was appointed to draft resolutions
expressive of the sense of the meeting, which after
consultation reported in substance that there should be
established in Selma two good schools, one for boys
and one for girls, and that the sum of $4,000 at least
would be required to be subscribed to effect the object
desired. The report was adopted by the meeting. On
May 15 another public meeting was held. The com-
mittee on subscriptions reported progress showing that
the citizens were responding liberally to the calls. The
trustees of Dallas Academy, through their president,
the Hon. J. R. John, proposed to co-operate with the
movement in such manner as might be deemed best,
to render the grounds and building, known as Dallas
Academy, available in its aid.
On the 1 3th of June the subscription having
amounted to a sum deemed sufficient to warrant the
inauguration of the proposed system of schools, a
meeting of the subscribers was held for the purpose
of selecting " a body of men that would fairly repre-
sent the public in respect to schools " in accordance
with the terms of the proposition made by Dr. Sears.
The selection resulted in the choice of the following
men : Jos. R. John, Jos. Hardie, Geo. O. Baker, Geo.
Peacock, Chas. M. Shelly, A. G. Mabry, James M.
Dedman, Edward Woods, John White, James W.
Lapsley, and S. C. Pierce. Of these, Messrs. John,
Baker, Woods, and Mabry were already members of
the board of trustees of Dallas Male and Female Acad-
emy. The remaining gentlemen above named were suc-
cessively elected to members of the board of trustees
of Dallas Male and Female Academy, one to fill a
vacancy caused by death, and the remainder to fill
vacancies caused by resignations to make room for
them. In this manner the new board acquired the
property, powers, rights, and immunities conferred by
94. HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
the act of incorporation in compliance with terms of
the charter of Dallas Male and Female Academy. The
new board thus created organized on the 22nd of
June, 1868, by the election of the following officers
and the adoption of its by-laws, viz: Jos. R. John,
president; Ed. Woods, secretary; Jos. Hardie, treas-
The Board proceeded to appoint a building commit-
tee to secure accommodations for the new free graded
school, now for the first time to be established in
Selma. This committee, after various efforts, decided
to enlarge the accommodations of the Dallas Academy
building by erecting another of the same dimensions
alongside the original building, thus increasing the
capacity to double the original size; and to rent a
building in East Selma for a branch school. The
board next proceeded to elect the following teachers:
Capt. N. D. Cross, principal and superintendent; Mr.
G. M. Callen, principal of the boys' department; Miss
Ella Thompson, principal of the girls' department ; and
eight assistant teachers; and Mrs. Moore, teacher of
vocal music. As the building was not completed, the
boys' school was opened in the basement of the Metho-
dist Church, and the girls' school in the basement of
the First Presbyterian Church, October n, 1868.
In 1869 the city of Selma was made a separate
school district under the general control of the State
Board of Education and a special superintendent, and
thenceforward became a part of the public-school sys-
tem of the State. An arrangement was made with
the City Council and City Board of Education, by
which the board of trustees should control and manage
the school, under the general supervision of the City
Superintendent arid the City Board of Education.
This arrangement has continued until the present time,
and has always worked harmoniously and satisfac-
The school has been maintained by special tax, the
State appropriation, and tuition fees. The income
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 95
from public monies has never been sufficient to make
the school entirely free. In 1873 the high school was
organized with twenty pupils, mainly girls under
charge of Miss Julia Nixon. In 1878 diplomas were
conferred on a class of six. Since that time this honor
has been conferred on about one hundred and thirty.
The board of trustees has been wise and fortunate
in the selection of principals and teachers for the
school. Since 1868 there have been three principals
Captain Cross, three years; Prof. Woodward, eleven
years; Prof. Hardaway, twenty years. Through all
this time they have been assisted by the very best
teachers to be found, several of whom have been in the
school for many years. One teacher, Miss Emily F.
Furguson, has taught continuously since 1868.
The combined labors of the trustees, principals, and
teachers has made Dallas Academy the pride of Selma,
and an honor to those who have brought it to its pres-
sent efficiency and usefulness.
Judson Female Institute, Marion, Alabama, 1839-1908
When Alabama became a State much interest in
education already existed, and the new State began
with commendable zeal to organize a school system,
and to establish academies and other seminaries for the
benefit of girls ; but, before the close of the first decade,
this zeal was much decreased difficulties had proved
much greater than had been foreseen, and many which
the people could not anticipate had arisen. However,
the people were not discouraged, and in the larger
towns " Female Associations for the Promotion of
Education " were organized. These associations were
called " female " not because they were composed of
women, for as many men as women belonged to
them, but because the prime object of their organiza-
tion was the advancement of the education of girls.
In 1833 such an association was formed in Marion,
Alabama, and a charter was obtained. This charter
96 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
empowered the stockholders to establish a school for
girls, of any grade desired. As a matter of course all
denominations belonged to this association, and all
patronized the school established in 1835.
This harmonious arrangement was not destined to
continue very long. The Baptists were the first to tire
of it, and withdraw. In 1833 the Alabama Baptist
State Convention, a corporate body, had established
" a Seminary for Young Men," afterward known as
Howard College, and at the session of 1837 the sub-
ject of education occupied much time and attention,
and after mature deliberation the Convention decided
to establish a school for girls, to be located in Marion.
Therefore, the Baptists withdrew from the " Society
for the Promotion of Education," and the school
established by the Society, and began preparations for
the accommodation of their own school. The first
session of this school the " Judson Female Institute "
began January 7, 1839, in a modest two-story
wooden building thirty by forty, and having two
wings. Rev. Milo P. Jewett was the first president ;
General Ed. D. King, president of the board of
trustees ; William Hornbuckle, secretary, and Langston
A small beginning was made with forty-seven pupils
and six teachers; the third session closed with one
hundred and fifty-seven pupils. In two and one half
years a house answering all the demands of the time
had been constructed, which was unsurpassed by any
school building for girls in the South at that time. It
was supplied with apparatus, a library, a cabinet of
minerals, music-rooms and an art studio. This build-
ing was destroyed by fire, but was soon replaced by
three handsome three-story brick buildings, joined by
two-story wings, forming a structure two hundred and
forty by one hundred and twenty feet. This building
was also destroyed by fire, but was replaced by build-
ings on a larger and more elegant plan, and greatly
superior to those which preceded them. Meanwhile,
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 97
thanks to the public spirit and liberality of the citizens
of Marion, the exercises of the school were not sus-
pended. All the classes were taught as usual during
the erection of this building.
When first organized this school adopted a uniform
dress for the students, and the graduates have always
worn plain white dresses, without trimming or orna-
On May 24, 1906, the sixty-eighth commencement
was held. To the graduating class and to the great
audience assembled in Alumnae Hall, President Patrick
read the first graduating essay ever read at the Judson
the graduating essay that was read in the remote
year of 1841, by Miss Carolina Frances Smith of
Lowndes County. To them was shown the first
diploma issued from the Judson, the diploma issued to
Miss Smith. Every word of it was written by hand,
and it was signed by that famous educator, Milo P.
Jewett, who became the first president of Vassar Col-
lege. Mr. Patrick also showed an oil portrait, life
size, of Miss Smith, Judson's first graduate.
On the evening of May 24, 1906, the thirty-six
graduates marched down the aisles of Alumnae Hall
to the stage, while the great pipe organ pealed a stately
march. To begin the exercises the large audience
arose and sang " Praise God from Whom all blessings
flow." A beautiful and touching prayer, by Rev. S. M.
Provence, followed. Then the graduating class sang
" The Lord is my Shepherd."
Diplomas were awarded to each of the following-
graduates : Literary president, Mayo Provence ; vice-
president, Jane Elizabeth Massey; treasurer, Annie
Lorena Warren. Degrees Bachelor of Arts, Mayo
Provence; Bachelor of Science, Elva Goodhue;
Bachelor of Literature, Margaret Ansley, Warre
Boyd, Janie Ida Bean, Mamie Crew, Inez Webb Col-
lins, Hattie Eloise Collins, Mary Lou Dean, Loucile
Donald, Louise Davie, Frances Ruby Holley, Ethel
Yvette Hill, Ruth Hobson, Rosa Ramsey, Carrie
98 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Spigener, Mabel Catherine Hauff, Annie Vinceil
Strong, Evalyn Thompson, Annie Lorena Watts.
Bonnie Pearl Watts, Jane Elizabeth Masse, Harriet
Cecil Hampton. Music Pianoforte, Bessie Inez
Burk, Ida Holley, Margaret Bacon; voice, Harriet
Hosmer Reynolds; violin, Annelu Burns; organ,
Maude Robinson; elocution, Ruth Hobson, Carrie
Spigener, Cecyle Clyde Metcalf, Ethel Salter. Art
Annie Vonceil Strong, Edna Middleton. The presi-
dent of the class, Miss Mayo Provence, was the recipi-
ent of the highest honor of her class.
The Judson is the property of the Alabama Baptist
Convention. Its interests are committed to a board of
trustees elected by the convention, to whom the board
annually reports. This board assumes the responsi-
bility of all expenses, so that no officer or teacher is
pecuniarily interested in its income. The manage-
ment of the affairs of the school is entrusted to a presi-
dent, who is elected by the board, and whose term of
office is determined by the condition of mutual satis-
faction between the contracting parties.
At the annual meeting of the board in 1906 the an-
nual report of President Patrick was received with
general satisfaction by the board, for in it was out-
lined the remarkable growth of the Judson during the
past ten years.
After a thorough examination of the books and
management, and in view of the fact that about sixty
pupils have been turned away every fall for three years,
the trustees decided to build an annex on the north
side of the dormitory, similar to the one on the south
side; also to beg-in work immediately on the Carnegie
Library, the building to cost $15,000 furnished by Mr.
Carnegie; the College has raised $15,000 endowment
fund. It was also definitely decided to build a house
for the president that will be in keeping with the form
and importance of the Judson.
The board of trustees in 1906 consisted of fourteen
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 99
ministers and laymen of the Baptist Church of Ala-
bama, B. F. E. Ellis, Orrville, president.
The Judson had been in operation well-nigh three
years before a charter was applied for. The trustees
named in this charter were Edwin D. King, James S.
Goree, Larkin Y. Tavnat, A. C. Eland, Langston
Goree, Francis Lowery, John Lockhart, William E.
Blasingame. The usual powers concerning the own-
ing and disposal of property were granted, but the
amount of property owned by the institution was
restricted to fifty thousand dollars. Trustees were em-
powered to grant diplomas, certificates, or other evi-
dences of scholarship as they may prescribe. This
charter was approved January 9, 1841.
100 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Livingston Female Academy, Livingston, Alabama,
THIS academy was incorporated January 15, 1840,
and without cessation of regular exercises has con-
tinued until the present time. The full course of in-
struction includes three departments: primary, inter-
mediate, and collegiate. In the first two departments
are three classes each. In the collegiate department,
four. One year is required for each class, or ten years
for the entire course. Latin and French are required ;
German and Greek are elective.
For the benefit of graduates of this and other in-
stitutions the collegiate course will be supplemented by
an elective course of higher grades whenever the neces-
In this course it will be the aim to bring the standard
of scholarship as nearly as possible to that recom-
mended by the Committee of Ten appointed by the
National Educational Association.
To meet the demands for trained teachers for the
public schools of the State the Legislature of 1882-83
made a yearly appropriation of $2,000 for the support
of the Normal School, and $500 for the purchase of
school appliances. The Livingston Academy being an
undenominational school, the directors were empow-
ered to establish in connection with it a normal depart-
ment to enable young women to prepare for teaching
in the public schools of the State. As the Academy
was well organized, or graded, and supplied with many
excellent appliances, this arrangement enabled the
normal department to begin work without delay. The
name was changed to Normal College and a new
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 101
charter was granted February 28, 1883. The Acad-
emy became the literary department of the Normal
College; and an industrial department, including
stenography, typewriting, telegraphy, a printing de-
partment, and a dressmaking and fitting department
have been added to the other advantages offered by the
Normal College. Vocal music in classes, and draw-
ing, both free-hand and outline, are taught in all de-
The boarding department and music department
(special lessons) and art department (including draw-
ing and painting) belong to the principal.
A unique feature of this school is the " annual ex-
cursion." During the winter of 1881 the plan of
school excursions was inaugurated by sending the first
to the Atlanta Exposition. The success of the trip
caused the principal, Miss Tutwiler, to decide in favor
of an annual trip if a sufficient number of the parents
desired it for their daughters. Almost the whole
school visited the New Orleans Exposition. In 1887
a party of twenty-six pupils and two teachers, chap-
eroned by Miss Tutwiler, made an excursion of ten
days to Washington City. The graduating class of
1895 decided not to have graduating costumes, not
even a white fan, gloves, or ribbons, but to wear the
simple uniform they wore every Sunday, and to ask
their parents to give each of them $25 to be used for
an educational excursion. They visited Tuscaloosa
during the commencement week of the University, met
many prominent citizens and distinguished Ala-
bamians, and visited places of interest; then on to
Birmingham, where they visited the rolling mills, fur-
naces, and other places of interest ; then on to Chatta-
nooga, Lookout Mountain, and Mounteagle, where
they spent two weeks, keeping house for themselves
in a cottage belonging to Miss Tutwiler. The neces-
sary cost of these excursions is $25.
The College buildings were burned to the ground
Christmas night, 1894, but the exercises of the school
102 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
were not interrupted for a single day. Two commo-
dious buildings, close together, one for the boarding
department the other for sole use of the school, have
The Normal College has had only one principal,
Miss Julia Strudwick Tutwiler, who was principal of
the Livingston Academy when the normal department
was established. A library, and reading-room sup-
plied with current literature, a laboratory, a museum,
a telegraph office, and a printing-press afford facilities
Athens Female Institute, 1842-1908
It had been obvious for some time to the leading
men of Athens that in order to maintain her prestige
Athens must provide schools of a higher grade than
the academy for girls. Indeed, this sentiment largely
pervaded the community, but the Methodists seemed
to take the lead in its discussion.
Thus the way was prepared for action when the
Tennessee Conference of the Methodist Episcopal
Church (at that time that part of Alabama lying north
of the Tennessee River belonged to the Tennessee
Conference) met in Athens, in October, 1842, and
after mature deliberation the enterprise was projected.
In 1843 a charter was obtained from the legislature
of Alabama incorporating the " Female Institute "
of the Tennessee Conference. The dignity and high
character of the undertaking was amply manifested
in the selection of the trustees named in the charter,
men prominent in church and state. The lofty aim
of the institution was further shown in the election
of the learned and sweet-spirited Dr. R. H. Rivers
as its first president.
Gradually the boundaries of the conferences were
made to coincide with the boundaries of the State,
and in 1869 the North Alabama Conference was or-
ganized, embracing the northern portion of Alabama,
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH IPS
in which Athens is situated, thus acquiring all the
church property in this section formerly belonging to
the Tennessee Conference. In this way the Institute
became the property of the North Alabama Conference.
In 1872 the charter was amended, changing the
name to the " Athens Female Institute," and again
was amended in 1889, changing the name to " Athens
College for Women." These amendments included
other changes, as extending the curriculum, enlarging
the powers of the trustees, and defining property
Several additions have been made to the beautiful
Ionic structure erected by the founders; one of these,
a spacious chapel ; another, a large two-story building
for accommodation of the music department. Re-
cently the whole building has been remodeled and
made modern in its appointments, and refurnished.
The entire structure is of brick, the main building
being three stories high.
The course of study embraces kindergarten, pri-
mary, intermediate, academic, and collegiate depart-
ments; the last requiring four years. The languages
taught are Latin, Greek, French, and German. To
these courses are added the schools of music, art,
voice culture, elocution, and business.
Two literary societies, a current events club, a chorus
club, an orchestra, musical recitals, and lectures by
the best platform speakers are some of the means of
culture used to render the course interesting and
The College has been a church school from the be-
ginning, hence the Bible is studied throughout the
course, and a regular course of Bible study forms a
part of the work of the collegiate course.
The College has an honorable history and a future
full of promise. It is enshrined in the hearts of thou-
sands, and there are mothers all over the South who
reflect with thanksgiving upon the gracious influences
shed upon them while students in its classic halls,
104 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
and remember with loving kindness the advice and
training received from the long line of eminent and
worthy presidents, whose lives were a benediction.
For several years the College has been under the
supervision of Miss Mary Moore, a woman eminently
fitted for the position. Under her guidance the stand-
ard has been raised, the equipment enlarged, and the
efficiency of the College greatly enhanced. The great
need of this College is an ample endowment; with this
advantage it could take rank with the first colleges
in the country.
(The material for this sketch was obtained from
catalogues, acts of Legislature, and correspondence.)
Alabama Central Female College, Tuscaloosa. 1845
Although the Baptists had established one school
for girls which had not been as successful as they
had anticipated, they were willing to make another
venture whenever an opportunity should present it-
self. The opportune time came when Montgomery
became the capital of the State. When this came to
pass, the Legislature gave the old Capitol to the L^ni-
versity. The trustees of the University soon realized
they had " a white elephant " on their hands, and
gladly leased the building to a syndicate for ninety-
nine years, on condition that it should be kept open
and a school kept in it.
The charter granted to this syndicate demanded that
two-thirds of the syndicate should be members of the
Baptist denomination, and limited the amount of stock
to $300,000; hence this college is locally known as
" The Baptist College," though its charter name is
" Alabama Central College."
The provision of the charter necessarily places it
under the control of the Baptist Church, though the
Baptists maintain it is not a denominational school :
as a proof of this contention, the teachers, other than
the principal, who has always been a member of the
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 105
Baptist Church, have been drawn from all denomina-
Among- the many presidents who have had charge
of this College during its existence of sixty-one years
are the following: Professors Bacon, Browne, Lan-
neau, Samuel B. Foster, Yancey, and Dr. Murfee.
Auburn Masonic Female College, Auburn, Alabama,
This school had its beginning in the forties, and
exact records are not extant ; however, tradition says
it was successfully managed by Mr. Pelot Lloyd, and
became so popular at home and abroad that more
commodious buildings became necessary.
In 1852 it became the property of the Masonic
Lodge of Auburn, and a new charter was approved
February 10, 1852.
The judiciary powers granted by this charter were
the same as were usually granted to institutions of
learning, and the trustees were empowered to con-
fer degrees and to grant diplomas to graduates, and
issue certificates of scholarship. One clause of this
charter forbids the sale of liquor within two miles of
the College. This seems a peculiar precaution for a
school for girls.
The rieht to elect trustees was vested in the Ma-
sonic Lodge in Auburn, and the trustees named in
the charter were to hold office until the Lodge should
see fit to appoint their successors.
Under the name and title of Auburn Female Col-
lege the school seemed to take on new life. Mr.
Lloyd was still in charge, and Mrs. Agnes Clower
was the first music teacher employed by the College.
General Holtzclaw of Montgomery delivered the first
baccalaureate address, June, 1854.
After a few years the Masonic Lodee relinquished
the management of the school and it became a pre-
paratory school for boys. At this juncture Judge
106 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
John Harper, a wealthy, liberal, and public-spirited
citizen, donated a beautiful grove contiguous to the
old school building, and a $6,000 brick house was
erected. This building was of the best material and
workmanship, as time and hard usage have proven.
It withstood the cyclone that swept over the town in
1870, and the less violent, but equally destructive, at-
tacks of the jack-knives of a generation of school
This school continued until the exigencies of the
War between the States converted it into a hospital
for Confederate soldiers, and for some time after
peace was declared it served as a refuge for weary,
For a short time it was degraded from its original
purpose and converted into a factory for furniture
for a time only, for the citizens, aroused from their
lethargy and determined to restore the old building
to its former use, re-established the school. Both
boys and girls were admitted to this re-established
school. The discipline was rigid, the teaching thor-
ough; the examinations were conducted publicly; and
visitors were often requested to quiz the pupils.
During the half century that had elapsed since the
establishment of the school many changes had been
made, and the building had been used for several
purposes. Another, and the last change up to date,
was made in 1900, when the school became again a
school for girls, the name was partially restored, and
it became known as the Auburn Female Institute.
The graduates of this Institute are admitted to the
junior class of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute,
also located in Auburn.
When the last change was made the old building
had served its purpose and its usefulness was passed,
and it was torn down and a modern schoolhouse
erected near the site of the old schoolhouse. The
same grand old oaks beneath whose shades some of
the noblest men of Alabama played " town-ball " and
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 107
marbles, shelter the school girls of the present day
as they indulge in the pastimes so dear to the modern
In 1900 Prof. G. W. Duncan was principal; his as-
sistants, Misses Potterfield and Martin.
(The material for this sketch was furnished by
Miss O'Hara of Auburn, Alabama.)
Orrville Institute, Dallas County, Alabama, 1852
This school was established by James R. Malone,
and was in a flourishing condition some years before
application was made for a charter. The trustees
named in the charter were Wiley Thomas, James F.
Orr, Henry Cobb, Edward B. Halloway, John McEl-
ray, James White, Felix G. Adams, Lewis B. Moseley,
Abner Y. Howell, P. T. Woodall, James D. McElray,
B. E. Cobb, John A. Norwood, and Alfred Averzt.
" These trustees were authorized, with the consent and
concurrence of James R. Malone, but not otherwise,
to make such rules and regulations for the government
of said institution as they deem expedient, provided
such regulations are not in conflict with the constitu-
tion of the State and of the United States. If James
R. Malone should sell his interest to said trustees,
then they shall have full and exclusive control of said
" This institution shall not hold property to exceed
$10,000, exclusive of buildings, apparatus and library.
The principal, James R. Malone, and his associate
teachers and their successors, who shall be styled the
faculty of Orrville Institute, shall have power to or-
ganize said institution on a college basis, and the same
is hereby declared to be a college proper, and said
faculty of said institution shall be empowered to con-
fer degrees, honors and diplomas, arid have all the
rights and privileges and immunities of all regular
This charter was approved February 9, 1852.
108 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
The College continued in active operation until
closed by the exigencies of war. The buildings re-
mained intact, and when schools were reopened after
the War between the States they were turned over
to the use of the public schools.
East Alabama Female College, Tuskegee, 1852
According to the terms of the charter of the Col-
lege, which was, granted January 27, 1852, the faculty
of said college may instruct in all the arts and sciences
usually taught in similar institutions, and grant di-
plomas and confer all degrees of literary distinction
which can be conferred by other institutions of learn-
ing in the United States.
One section of the charter is a stringent law against
the sale of liquor within three miles of the College.
No license shall be received in justification for a
violation of this law.
The property was limited to $130,000 exclusive of
apparatus and library ; the grounds to fifteen acres.
Baptist Female Institute at Moulton, Alabama,
The trustees of this Institution were appointed by
the Muscle Shoals Association, No. 13. They were
empowered to grant diplomas, and to make such regu-
lations as were not contrary to the constitution of the
State or of the United States. A two-thirds vote
was necessary to elect a principal.
No law concerning sale of liquor, but a fine of
$1,000 was imposed on any bowling-alley within three
miles of the institution one-half allowed to the pros-
ecutor and one-half placed in the county treasury.
This school was closed by Federal troops, the build-
ings destroyed, and never rebuilt.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 109
Salem Female Academy, Jefferson County, Alabama,
This academy was maintained by a stock company,
and the trustees elected by stockholders. The shares
were $25 each, and one share entitled to one vote,
either in person or by proxy. The stock was trans-
ferable, but limited to $20,000.
The trustees had full power to decide as to the
competency and number of teachers, to make rates
of tuition, and to grant diplomas on adequate attain-
ments as well as certificates or other evidences of
scholarship, and in short do any and every thing neces-
sary and proper to promote the objects of said institu-
tion, or which other institutions of like kind may
lawfully do. This charter was approved February
Rehoboth Academy, Rehoboth, Wilcox County, Ala-
The corporation of this academy was perpetual, but
it was not a stock company.
The trustees had the same powers as the trustees
of Salem Academy. This charter was approved Feb-
ruary 9, 1852.
Isbell College, Talladega, Alabama, 1847-1908
In 1847 the Presbyterians of Talladega County re-
solved to establish a school for girls in the town of
Talladega, where their own daughters and as many
others as would patronize the school could obtain col-
They appointed a board of trustees to carry out
the measure. The names of these trustees are a guar-
antee to all Alabamians that the school was excellent
in all its apppointments ; they were Lewis E. Parsons,
110 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Alexander White, Dr. J. E. Knox, Rev. A. B. Mc-
Corkle, Major James, General William B. McClellen,
Andrew Cunningham, Thomas Cameron, and Colonel
These trustees obtained a charter which empowered
them to establish a school on a college basis, and they
erected suitable buildings, which cost $20,000. The
buildings were completed in 1849, an d in October of
that year the school opened under the management of
President Hoyt, a Presbyterian minister.
In 1854 the trustees made a proposition to the Synod
of Alabama to transfer the school and the buildings
to the Synod and change the name from Presbyterian
Collegiate Institute to Synodical Institute. The prop-
osition was accepted, and in 1856 the transfer was
made, and from that time the Institute was under
the control of a board of trustees appointed by the
Synod, who made reports to the Synod at its annual
sessions. In 1888 the Presbyterian Church in Talla-
dega requested the Synod to transfer the Institute to
the church. After two years' negotiation this was
done, and the transfer was made in 1890* and the name
changed to Isbell College.
The departments are, literary, consisting of an aca-
demic and a collegiate course, requiring eight years
to complete both ; music and art.
The buildings originally were large two-story brick
buildings. They have been enlarged and improved,
and facilities required to conduct these departments
according to modern ideas have been added. The
College is still in a flourishing condition.
East Alabama Female Institute, Talladega, 1849
In 1849 the Masonic fraternity of Talladega re-
solved to establish a school of high grade for girls,
which would not be denominational in its teaching.
In 1850 the corner-stone was laid with appropriate
ceremonies, and the building hurried to completion.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 111
This building, which cost $25,000, was placed in
the center of a twenty-acre lot, which was divided
into a campus, a park, and a farm. The building
stands on the top of a hill, which is terraced down
to the level of the street. The terrace immediately
around the house is laid out for a flower garden, the
one below is planted in grass and shaded by live-
The school opened in October, 1851, under manage-
ment of Professor Patrick, president, and Professor
Thomas Cook associate president, with a corps of
competent teachers. The departments of music and
art were well equipped; the former was in charge
of Professor J. W. Blandin, a graduate of the Con-
servatory of Music in Boston; the art department
was in charge of Mrs. Shelly.
The Masons did not realize their expectations in
the success of this college, and in 1854 they sold the
property to the Alabama Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church South. The school did not suc-
ceed under this management, and in 1858 the Confer-
ence closed the school and rented the property to Dr.
Joseph H. Johnson of Cave Springs, Georgia, who
opened a school for the deaf, October i, 1858.
In 1860 the State bought the property for $16,000,
and in February, 1860, the State Institution for the
Deaf and Dumb was organized. In 1866 the School
for the Blind was added, and in 1887 the Academy
for the Blind was established, all under the supervision
of Dr. Johnson, who continued in charge until his
death, when he was succeeded by his son.
When the State bought the property it was en-
larged and a herd of Jersey cattle placed on the farm.
This farm supplies the school with vegetables and
milk and butter, and affords a means for training
in practical agriculture and dairy work.
The departments of the school are furnished with
suitable appliances for teaching, and the teachers are
experts in the different lines of work.
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
In 1890 the State bought an adjoining tract of land,
erected suitable buildings, and in 1892 opened a sepa-
rate school for deaf and dumb and blind children of
the African race.
(The material for this sketch was furnished by Mr.
L. L. Lewis of Talladega, and obtained from cata-
logues sent by him.)
Oak Bowery Female College, Oak Bowery, Alabama,
This school began as Oak Bowery Academy, whose
charter was approved December 25, 1837. By terms
of the charter the corporation was perpetual and en-
titled to a common seal alterable at pleasure, and
the property rights and judiciary powers were
The first amendment to this charter was approved
February i, 1843, an d read as follows: "After the
passage of this act the Oak Bowery Academy shall
be known as Chambers Collegiate Institute. Henry
C. Marcell, J. Alma Pelot, and their successors, to-
gether with the present board of trustees, shall have
the power to confer degrees and fill vacancies both in
the board of trustees and professors, provided no va-
cancy shall be filled unless there be present and voting
a majority of the trustees."
The second amendment was approved February 4,
1850. An entirely new board of trustees is named
in this act, most of them Methodist preachers, and
they and their successors are declared a body cor-
porate by the name and style of the " Oak Bowery
Female College/' under the direction of the Methodist
Episcopal Church South.
The College was in charge of a first-class faculty,
and did efficient work of a high order. It was not
closed by the exigencies of war, but continued ef-
fective some years after the war closed, when it was
merged into the public-school system.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 115
Alabama Conference College, Tuskegee, 1854-1908
This College was chartered in 1854, under the name
of Tuskegee College. The usual powers concerning
honors, diplomas, and literary distinctions were
granted; the amount of property was limited to $130.-
ooo and the land to fifteen acres.
Rev. A. A. Lipscome was the first president, and
continued in office until the close of the War between
the States. It was not closed during the war ; indeed,
it was quite prosperous until the Reconstruction
caused utter financial ruin.
At one time the closing of the College seemed in-
evitable in spite of the utmost endeavors of its friends.
Rev. J. W. Rush, Rev. M. S. Andrews, and Rev.
Henry D. Moore particularly exerted themselves in
its behalf. The Methodists were anxious to build up
this College. They had already donated to the State
two colleges the East Alabama College for men at
Auburn, and LaGrange College at Florence; the first
became the A. & M. College, the second the State
After strenuous efforts they succeeded in paying the
debt on the College, and in 1872 they applied for a
By the terms of this charter the property limitations
were removed ; the College was recognized as the
property of the Methodist Episcopal Church South;
and the name was changed from Tuskegee College
to Alabama Conference Female College. John Mas-
sey, A.M., LL.D., was elected president and a new
board of trustees was also elected.
The attendance at the opening of the next session
was encouraging, and since that time the numbers
steadily increased. Only a few years after Dr. Massey
took charge it became necessary to enlarge the build-
ing, and in a few years it became necessary to erect
another building, and still another to meet the demands
114 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
of the school. The school now has suitable buildings
for all its departments, well equipped laboratories,
and gymnasium, and studios for music and art. The
curriculum has been changed to accord with modern
ideas of a college course.
The literary departments of this institution were
from the beginning and are, primary, preparatory, and
the college proper. This gives the advantage of send-
ing all the girls of a family to the same school. Though
entirely separate they are under the same manage-
The alumnae, now numbering hundreds, have
formed an alumnae association, which meets during
commencement week, in Alumnae Hall in the College.
(Facts contained in this sketch are taken from ad-
vertisements in papers, and from Acts of Legislature,
Montevallo Female Institute, Montevallo, Alabama
By act of the General Assembly of Alabama, ap-
proved February 6, 1858 (Acts of Alabama, 1857-58,
page 88), the_" Montevallo Male and Female In-
stitutes of the Union Synod of the Cumberland Pres-
byterian Church of Alabama " was incorporated.
Among the powers granted were, " grant diplomas,
and confer all the degrees of literary distinction usually
granted in similar male and female institutes of learn-
ing in the United States."
These institutes, for there were two separate and
distinct schools, began work October, 1857. The girls
were taught in the building now used for the Monte-
vallo Industrial School ; the boys in a building which
has been converted into a private residence.
Dr. Roach was the first president ; he was succeeded
by Rev. A. J. C. Hail.
The Synod ceased to operate the school in 1864,
and during the latter part of the War the building
used for the girls' institute, now the chapel of the
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 115
Industrial School, was used as quarters for soldiers
camped in Montevallo.
Shortly after the War the Synod turned over the
chapel and lot to Rev. W. H. Meredith, who with his
wife continued the Montevallo Female Institute till
about 1875, after which time Mrs. Meredith continued
to teach a mixed school until 1887 or 1888. The In-
stitute was considered a high-grade school, and af-
forded an opportunity for advanced study that many
otherwise would not have had.
In 1888 the Alabama Industrial School for Girls
was established in the old buildings of the Institute.
Rev. Frank Peterson was the first and only principal.
Greenville College, Greenville, Butler County, Florida
This institution was organized on a regular college
basis February 5, 1860.
Clayton College, Barbour County, Alabama
This was also declared a college by its charter, and
all the powers and privileges of a college granted to
it. Its property rights and judicial powers were clearly
defined, but the amount of property exclusive of
buildings and equipment was limited to $50,000. This
charter was approved February 10, 1860.
Only four days after this charter was approved, a
charter was granted to Woodlawn Institute, Marengo
County. This was also empowered to confer degrees
and grant diplomas.
Hamner Hall Seminary, Montgomery, Alabama, 1860
This school was established by the Protestant Epis-
copal Church. It opened October, 1859, and its char-
ter was approved February 10, 1860. It was situated
in the western suburb of Montgomery in a large,
beautiful grove of oaks. Ample provision was made
116 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
for accommodating boarders, and for a few years it
prospered. Soon after the close of the War between
the States the boarding department was discontinued,
but the school continued until about 1890, when it
ceased to be profitable.
There were two other high-grade schools for girls
opened about the same time as Hamner Hall the
school of the Misses Follansbee on Perry street, and
Mrs. Chilton's school on Sayre street. The last was
closed on account of the ill health of Mrs. Chilton,
and the building rented to the Public School Trustees.
The school of the Misses Follansbee continued until
about 1890. These schools did efficient work and are
gratefully remembered by many of the leading women
Canebrake Female Institute, Uniontown, Perry
This was chartered February 4, 1850. Though
called an institute, it was a college and had the power
to confer degrees. The school opened under favorable
auspices October, 1849, an< ^ continued until 1862,
when the building was burned and never rebuilt.
Though a small college, it was fairly well equipped.
It was furnished with chemical and physical apparatus,
and globes, charts and a telescope ; also musical instru-
The prime object of its organization was to give
an opportunity to the girls of the Canebrake section
to obtain collegiate training free from the evils of a
large boarding-school; and this it effectually did dur-
ing its short existence.
Chunnanugga Ridge Institute, 1846
This was another small college that did good work
until closed by the exigencies of war.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 117
Its charter was approved January i, 1846. The
amount of property allowed by this charter was limited
to $20,000, exclusive of building and equipment. This
charter was amended to give full collegiate powers to
the College, and allowing property to the amount of
Courtland Masonic Institute, Laivrence County,
This was the property of Courtland Lodge, No. 37.
Trustees were elected by the Lodge. The charter,
dated February 8, 1854, granted the power to grant
rewards of scholarship. .
Gainsville Institute, Sumter County, Alabama
The Institute could confer degrees and grant di-
plomas. Charter dated February 8, 1854.
Forest Hill Seminary, Talladega County, Alabama
This had the same powers as Gainsville Institute.
Amount of property, exclusive of library and appa-
ratus, was not to exceed $50,000. Date of charter,
East Alabama College, Tuskegee, Macon County
This was under auspices of the Baptist Church. It
was burned about the close of the War between the
States, and never rebuilt. Charter granted January
Robinson Institute, Autauga County, Alabama
The charter approved January 2 1,1845, was amended
February u, 1850, by changing the name to McGehee
College, with all'the powers and privileges of a college,
118 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
and a normal department was added to the College.
This was the only college established in Alabama by
the Protestant Methodist denomination.
Charter dated February i, 1852.
Lowndesborough Institute, Lowndesborough, Lowndes
Charter dated January 29, 1852.
Gaston Institute, Sumter County
The trustees had power " to make such rules and
regulations and prescribe such forms for granting di-
plomas, certificates, or other evidences of scholarship
as they may choose." Charter dated February 4,
DadevilU Masonic Seminary, Dadeville, Tallapoosa
This was under control of Tohopeka Lodge, No. 71,
and Chapter No. 45, of Dadeville. It had all the
powers and privileges of a regular college. Charter
approved February 4, 1852.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 119
Some Other Institutes, Seminaries, and Colleges
LITTLE is known of many institutes, seminaries, and
colleges that once were efficient schools, except what
can be found in the " Acts of the Legislature." Among
Columbia Institute, Henry County. Charter ap-
proved February i, 1843.
Robinson Institute, Autauga County. Date of char-
ter January 21, 1845.
Central Masonic Institute, Dallas County. Date
of charter January 13, 1846; power to grant diplomas
and confer degrees granted January 29, 1850.
Orion Institute, Prospect Ridge, Pike County.
Charter granted January 25, 1845; repealed February
Union Franconia Institute, Pickens County. Char-
tered March i, 1848.
Pickensville Institute, Pickens County. Chartered
January 29, 1848.
Dayton Literary Association changed to Masonic
Institute, Dayton, Marengo County, January 24, 1848.
Hayneville Institute, Lowndes County. Chartered
February 5, 1848.
Montevallo Collegiate Institute, Montevallo, Shelby
County. Chartered February 6, 1848.
Mobile High School, Mobile. Chartered February
Wilcox Institute, Camden, Wilcox County. Char-
tered January 31, 1850; amendment granting power
to confer degrees and grant diplomas, February 2,
Carrollton Academy given power to confer degrees
120 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
and grant diplomas, January 26, 1850. Seal of the
Academy and the signature make them valid. Carroll-
ton is in Pickens County.
Octavia Walton Le Vert Normal College, 1860
This college was located in Dadeville, Tallapoosa
County, Alabama, and began its career under favor-
able auspices. It was named for Madam Octavia Wal-
ton Le Vert, who was very popular in Alabama.
Strange as it may seem to some that any attention
was paid to normal training of teachers prior to the
advent of the public-school system, nevertheless it is
true that this college was organized and chartered
for that very purpose. However, there was scarcely
time to show what the work would be before it was
closed by the War between the States.
Synodical Female College, Florence, Alabama, 1854
Florence is situated on the Tennessee River, and is
one of the oldest towns in the State of Alabama, hav-
ing been laid out under the direction of The Cypress
Land Company, in 1818, by an Italian, Mr. Sinoni,
who named the new town in honor of his native city,
Florence, Italy. The population increased slowly;
even as late as 1870 it was only 2,000; notwithstand-
ing, the interest in education was always great. The
first school was taught by Mr. Charles Sullivan; his
successor was Rev. Wallan, an Episcopal clergyman.
Later Mrs. Caroline Lee Hentz had a large and
flourishing school for young ladies. She employed a
German professor of music, a native Frenchman to
teach French, and competent teachers of art. After
her departure in 1842, the Florence Female Academy
was organized, but not chartered until 1848. The
curriculum was the usual academic course of study,
with departments of music and art.
When the town was laid out The Cypress Land
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH
Company gave two large lots in the center of the
town for school buildings one for boys and one
for girls. On the one donated for a girls' school the
citizens built a large, rather imposing structure sur-
rounded by a board colonnade whose colonial columns
were two stories high. In this building the Synodical
Female College commenced its existence in October,
1854. It was chartered December 13, 1855; the bill
was vetoed by Governor Winston, but passed by the
The incorporators were William Mitchell, Robert
M. Patton, James Irvine, Richard W. Walker, Syd-
ney C. Posey, Neal Rowell, Thos. Kirkman, Samuel
D. Weakly, Charles Gookin, Benjamin F. Foster, John
S. Kennedy, William K. Key, Benjamin Taylor,
Boyles E. Bourland, John T. Edgar, A. Smith, A. A.
Doak, and R. B. McMillan. These trustees were em-
powered to hold real and personal property in trust
in perpetuity for use of said college and for the Pres-
byterian Synod of Nashville, Tennessee, and all
powers concerning property usually conferred upon
trustees were granted to this board; also all legal
title to property heretofore donated or conveyed to
the Synod of Nashville by the president and trustees
of the Florence Female Academy or by the mayor and
aldermen of Florence, or by any others, was vested in
the President and Trustees of Florence Synodical
Female College. In addition, the power was given
to confer diplomas upon graduating pupils, and to do
all other necessary and proper things for the promotion
of education in said college.
Mrs. David, corresponding secretary of the Ala-
bama Division of U. D. C., has kindly furnished the
following sketch of this old school:
" This was for many years one of the largest and
most popular of the many colleges for girls in the
South. At that time our schools were all supplied
with Northern teachers, there were no Southern teach-
ers, except men; therefore, all the teachers in this
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
school, except the president, were Northern women.
When satisfactory they were retained for years.
" The first president was a Mr. Stebbins ; a man
highly esteemed. He was connected with the school
for several years. He was followed by a Mr. Nicholls,
a red-headed, high-tempered, disagreeable man who
was a terror to the girls; in fact, little else than a
bear ; therefore his stay was short.
" The next president was Mr. Rogers from Georgia,
a fine man and excellent president. He presided dur-
ing the most prosperous years of the school. During
this time every department was conducted by compe-
tent teachers. There was a German professor of
music, Professor Neumayer, with competent assistants.
Music was never more successfully taught ; the piano,
violin, guitar, pipe organ, and harp were skilfully
taught. The professor was proud of his class, and
the frequent musicals and concerts given in the chapel
were enjoyed by large and appreciative audiences.
Light operas were rendered, when the girls dressed in
the required costumes. A native Frenchman, Monsieur
De Soto, taught French, and creditable recitations
were given, and compositions read in French, at the
entertainments of the school, and these were frequent.
" There was always a large class in art, to whom
everything in art of that day was taught. Beautiful
work in oil paintings done by the pupils of these
classes to-day beautify the homes of the old pupils in
many of our States.
" The president of the board of trustees, Hon.
Robert M. Patton, afterward Governor, who devoted
much time and thought to the school, and was de-
votedly loved by all the pupils, was once invited to
the art-room, where he was informed that the art
pupils intended to paint his portrait, and then and
there he had the first sitting. Each girl gave some
strokes to this portrait, and when it was finished they
presented it to him. It was ever afterward one of his
most highly prized treasures.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 123
" Every pupil dreaded the examinations, at which
time the chapel was filled to overflowing. Business
of the town was almost suspended, and everybody at-
tended the exercises. There was then none of the
humbuggery about written examinations of the pres-
ent day ; the classes were called up to take seats on the
stage and were examined on the work done during
six or twelve months, and each girl was required to
stand while reciting.
" After the teachers had finished their questioning
an invitation was given to any one in the audience
who wished to ask questions to do so. This invitation
was always accepted, and the girls were truly thankful
if only one accepted.
" The pupils were drilled in spelling through the
entire course, and were really taught to spell, and of
course to read. Few children can now either spell or
" I remember especially among the teachers in the
school two beautiful and elegant women from the
North. They were of the English style in appearance
large, handsome women, having beautiful fair com-
plexions, luxuriant black hair, and large brown eyes
the Misses Reynolds. They were delightful women
in society, useful in church and Sunday-school, and
their services were highly valued. They were excel-
lent teachers, a blessing in the school-room, and much
loved by their pupils. Everything breaks down in
time, and after many years these teachers were not
satisfactory, and they returned to their Northern
homes and friends, and wrote a book against the South
called ' Peter Still/ When compared with this pro-
duction, * Uncle Tom's Cabin ' was tame indeed.
" Peter Still, the hero, was the overseer of course
a Northern man on a plantation where the Misses
Reynolds had visited, been hospitably entertained,
treated royally. ' It was ever thus ' with the Southern
" Dr. Rogers resigned the presidency on account
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
of the ill health of his wife, and was succeeded by
Dr. William N. Mitchell, who had been for many
years the Presbyterian minister in Florence. The
school was large and flourishing under his administra-
tion, until his health failed and he resigned. Mr. J.
S. Anderson next took charge, and had a large school
of lovely girls, from all over the South ; however,
he remained only a few years and resigned and bought
property in Huntsville, and for many years had a
large and flourishing school in that city.
" Mr. Frierson succeeded as president. The school
did not prosper under his administration. His health
failed and he remained only a short time.
" Dr. Bardwell, a lovely Christian gentleman, then
took charge. He was a Presbyterian minister, and
very acceptable as a teacher and presiding officer,
but his health failed and in a year or two he died.
" The impression that misfortune came to ministers
who abandoned the regular work of the ministry for
any other work seemed to prevail in the community,
and the trustees made a decided departure from the
long established custom of electing a minister to pre-
side over the school, and elected Miss Sally Collier
" The school continued during the War between
the States, as the invading armies did not enter that
portion of the State.
" During the Reconstruction period the school be-
gan to decline; and the trustees, anxious to restore
it to its pristine greatness, decided that an addition
to the first building would be advantageous. They
borrowed money to make the improvement, and thus
encumbered the property with debt, which they have
not been able to liquidate.
" After the establishment of the State Normal and
the public school, the attendance steadily decreased
until it was thought advisable to close the doors for-
" A year or two ago the property was sold to a
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 125
Northern man, for a very small sum, and he has now
sold a portion of it to the government for a very
(The material for this sketch was taken from the
Acts of Legislature, 1855; the remainder is a sketch
by Mrs. McDavid.)
126 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Schools in Florida
ACCORDING to information obtained from the Cath-
olic Historical Association there were no schools in
Florida, during Spanish dominion, except schools for
the Indians, taught by the fathers of the monastery of
St. Francis in St. Augustine.
During British occupation, from 1763 to 1783, at-
tention was principally directed to warlike affairs.
Neither did Spain pay any attention to education when
she assumed control the second time.
From the organization of the territorial government
by the United States, in 1822, to 1842, the unsettled
condition of the country, produced by the Seminole
War, prevented progress in the arts of peace. All
the schools in Florida prior to 1850 were common
The first step taken by Florida toward the estab-
lishment of schools for higher education is found in
the Act of the Legislature, January 24, 1851, in which
it is provided : " That two seminaries of learning shall
be established, one on the east, the other on the west
side of the Suwanee River, the purpose of which shall
be the instruction of persons, both male and female,
in the art of teaching all the various branches that
pertain to a good common-school education; and,
next, to give instruction in the mechanical arts in hus-
bandry, and in agricultural chemistry, in the mechan-
ical arts, in the fundamental laws, and in what regards
the rights and duties of citizenship. . . . Lectures on
chemistry, comparative anatomy, astronomy, and the
mechanic arts, agricultural chemistry, or any branch of
literature that the board of education may direct, may
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 187
be delivered to those attending the seminary in such
manner, and at such time, and on such conditions as
the board of education may prescribe."
One of these schools was established in Tallahassee,
the other in Ocala subsequently removed to Gains-
ville. They were until the formation of the State
constitution, in 1868, and for a decade following,
the only public educational institutions of collegiate
On November 24, 18^6, the board of trustees of
Florida Institute (owned by the city of Tallahassee)
offered to the Legislature of Florida the college build-
ing with its appliances, to be given at an appraised
value, and the remainder in money, $10,000 in all,
to locate the State Seminary in Tallahassee. The prop-
osition was accepted March 27, 1857. Until June 14,
1858, this university received boys only, then it was
resolved, " That the board provide for the instruction
of females from and after the first day of October
August 28, 1858, the board accepted a deed of con-
veyance from the president of Leon Female Academy
of two lot's in the north addition of Tallahassee, and
the college has ever since maintained a female de-
partment. It was taught in the academy building until
1882, when the two schools were merged.
By an Act of 1861 the Seminary was authorized to
assume a collegiate standard as a basis of its organ-
ization. At the annual meeting, June 5, 1901, the
board of education resolved " that the official title of
the school now located in the city of Tallahassee, and
formerly known as the ' Seminary West of the Suwa-
nee,' or the ' West Florida Seminary/ shall, from and
after this date, be the Florida State College."
The buildings are College Hall, two dormitories,
Westcott Memorial Chapel, and Gymnasium.
The equipment consists of Library of several thou-
sand volumes and the University Library, physical,
chemical, biological, physiological, and histological
128 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
laboratories, museum, and mathematical instruments,
and a telescope.
To prepare for this college a high school has been
established. The course of the high school requires
three years. It offers two courses, classical and com-
mercial, and diplomas are awarded to those com-
The Alumni and Alumnae each have an association.
Each holds annual convocations during commencement
There are two debating societies the Platonic and
the Anaxagorean ; each has a hall and each gives pub-
lic debates during commencement week.
In a note appended to the catalogue of the State
College the President says, " Florida has never fallen
into the old routine of instruction " meaning, I sup-
pose, the establishment of separate schools for girls;
also, " Florida can boast of good schools for both
white and black."
The only distinctly girls' school of which the writer
could find any record is Leesburg Institute, established
by Florida Conference of M. E. Church South, in Lees-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 129
First School in Georgia for Girls
THE first immigrants who came to Georgia after
its settlement by Oglethorpe were the Salzburgers.
They were cordially welcomed and permitted to se-
lect lands. The land selected was twenty miles from
Savannah, and here they settled a village and called
it Ebenezer. As soon as they built their houses of
pine boards, sixteen by twenty, they built a tabernacle
for public worship; then a schoolhouse. Few records
of this school have been preserved, but it is certain
that both boys and girls attended it. The records of
the early Lutheran school that are now extant show
that they did not favor mixed schools, and it is pre-
sumable that this school was not a mixed school.
They brought their teacher with them, and their pub-
lic library at Ebenezer contained books in thirteen
languages. (Letter from Mrs. Gignilliat.) This
school continued until the colonists were driven from
their homes by the British forces when Savannah was
Doubtless there were other schools for girls estab-
lished in Georgia during the eighteenth century, but
no record of them remains. Notwithstanding Georgia
was settled by intelligent and cultured people, they
were for some reason decidedly opposed to granting
a charter to a school exclusively for girls, and though
bills for such charters were many times introduced in
the Georgia Legislature, not one was ever passed prior
to 1827. However, the Georgia people were not un-
mindful of the importance of schools, and they made
provision for common schools and established acad-
emies, some of which had a department for girls. A
130 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
few of them were endowed and are reaping the benefit
of that endowment even now.
The first school for girls of which any record re-
mains was that of Madam Dugas at Washington,
Wilkes County. Madame Dugas was one of the
refugees from the San Domingo massacre of 1791.
That she was a woman of great refinement and well
educated is the testimony of a daughter of one of her
The school began in 1792, but in what month is
not known. It became a very popular boarding-school.
The only record obtainable is found in the " Report
of the Academy Commissioners of Wilkes County
Academy," located in the town of Washington. This
notice is: " In March, 1806, Madam Dugas asked the
commissioners to patronize her school, and to ap-
point a day to visit and examine her pupils ; the min-
utes show that the visit was made." This is all that
can be learned of the history of the school.
The next school for girls was College Temple at
Newnan, taught by Mr. M. P. Kellogg. It was es-
tablished about 1820, and was conducted on a college
basis, but was never chartered, and had only one
president, and when he died the school was discon-
Among institutes, seminaries and colleges that were
organized in Georgia prior to 1860 may be mentioned:
Culloden Seminary, at Culloden, Monroe County;
Monroe College, Baptist, Forsyth, Monroe County;
private academy taught by Early Cleveland, Forsyth,
Monroe County; Georgia Masonic Female College,
Covington; Girls' High School, Appling. Columbus
County, organized in the thirties : Levert Female Col-
lege, Talbotton, Talbot County; Mrs. Warne's Acad-
emy, Sparta, Hancock County ; Harmony Grove Acad-
emy, Jackson County; Methodist College in Madison,
Morgan County; Baptist College also in Madison;
Americus Female College, Americus; Warrenton
Academy, Warrenton; Georgia Episcopal Institute,
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 131
Montpelier Springs; several seminaries for girls in
Augusta; LaGrange Institute, founded in 1845, m ~
corporated in 1846, conducted on a college basis; La-
Grange Female Seminary, established in 1843, by
Rev. John E. Dawson plan of instruction strictly
collegiate; furnished with chemical and philosophical
apparatus, minerals, and a small library.
Clinton Female Institute, Clinton, Jones County,
In 1833 R CV - Thomas B. Slade established Clinton
Female Institute, at Clinton, Jones County, Georgia.
This school continued there in much prosperity until
he accepted a professorship in the Georgia Female
College, which opened January, 1839.
After much persuasion Mr. Slade consented to close
his school and transfer as much of the patronage of
his school to the Georgia College as he could. Many
of his pupils followed him to Macon, and formed the
majority of those present on that memorable opening
day. He also took his own apparatus, chemical and
physical, and his pianos; and his music teacher, Miss
Maria Lord, and her assistant, Miss Martha Massey,
were also employed as teachers in the College.
The pupils from Mr. Slack's school formed the
first graduating class of the Georgia College a fact
not generally known, and never mentioned in any of
the catalogues of Wesleyan.
The president, Rev. George Pierce, and Rev. T. B.
Slade resigned their places, at the close of the second
session of the College, about eighteen months after
At the earnest solicitation of the trustees of Mer-
cer University, Mr. Slade accepted the position of
principal of a school in Penfield. This school was
deemed essential to the welfare of Mercer.
This school did not prosper, and again Mr. Slade
packed his equipment, and this time he went to Colum-
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
bus and opened a private school, The Columbus In-
stitute. This school flourished until closed by the War
between the States, in 1863.
A quotation from an obituary notice will serve to
show the character of the man and his methods.
" In all his enterprises he never asked and never
received pecuniary assistance from any one. He paid
his own way, put up his own buildings, hired and al-
ways paid his own teachers, bought his own pianos,
and supplied amply and fully all apparatus illustrating
natural sciences. He never electioneered for pupils,
and no pupil was ever rejected because she was un-
able to pay her tuition fee.
"Mr. Slade was one of the pioneers in the higher
education of women in Georgia, and the good influence
of himself and his most estimable wife runs like a
thread of gold through many lives that bless our
(This account of Mr. Slade's school was kindly sent
by his daughter, Mrs. J. E. Gignilliat. It is the only
information obtainable of the Clinton Institute and
the Institute in Columbus.)
In 1829 or 1830 Dr. Brown had a school for young
ladies at Scottsboro, a small place near Milledge-
ville, which was well patronized.
There was also a school for young ladies, estab-
lished in Fort Gaines in the thirties by Mr. Taylor,
who made music a prominent feature of his school.
He had a number of pianos and a large pipe organ
brought from Germany. This school, though well
patronized, did not last long.
(This also is from a letter from Mrs. Gignilliat.)
Wesleyan, Macon, Georgia, 1839-1908
In 1835 Hon. Daniel Chandler, an alumnus of the
University of Georgia, delivered an address on fe-
male education before the Demosthenian and Phi
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 133
Kappa Societies of the University. It was so highly
esteemed that the Phi Kappa Society requested a copy
for publication; five thousand copies were printed and
it was widely circulated. Through its inspiration the
Wesleyan sprung into existence. The proposition to
establish a college for women received favorable con-
sideration from men in high position in church and
state. As a majority of these belonged to the Metho-
dist Episcopal Church, when the annual session of the
Georgia Conference convened the projectors of the
College offered to place it under the charge of the
Conference, and this offer was cordially accepted. Dr.
Lovick Pierce was appointed traveling agent, and other
agents were appointed.
The institution was chartered by the Legislature of
Georgia, in 1836, as Georgia Female College.
The Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church
at the session of 1836 appointed the following board
of trustees : James O. Andrews, John W. Tall}'-, Wil-
liam Arnold, Samuel K. Hodges, Lovick Pierce, Ig-
natius A. Few, Alexander Speer, Thomas Samford,
William J. Parks, George F. Pierce, Elijah Sinclair,
Henry G. Lamar, Jere Cowles, Ossian Gregory, Rob-
ert Collins, E. Hamilton, George Jewett, Henry Solo-
mon, Augustus B. Longstreet, Walter T. Colquitt,
Jas. A. Nesbitt, Robert Augustus Beall. The board
held many meetings and had many interesting discus-
sions as to the plan of the building and the ways and
means, the ceremony of laying the corner-stone, the
course of study, etc.
Two years after their organization, in June, 1838,
the trustees elected a president of the College and one
professor, and in November following, the other pro-
fessors and officers. The College, crowning Encamp-
ment Hill, since known as College Hill, was opened
to the public and beean its appropriate work January
7, 1839, with tn e following faculty: Rev. G. F. Pierce,
president, and professor of English literature; Rev.
W. H. Ellison, professor of mathematics; Rev. T. B.
134 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Slade, professor of natural science ; Rev. S. Mattison.
principal of preparatory department; B. B. Hopkins,
tutor; John Euhink, professor in music; Miss Lord,
first assistant in music; Miss Massey, second assistant
in music; Mrs. Shelton, matron; Mrs. Kingman, de-
partment of domestic science ; A. R. Freeman, steward.
The following notice of the opening of the College
is taken from the " History of Macon " by John C.
Butler, Esq. :
. " It was an occasion of great interest and deep
and thrilling excitement. A large and respectable
number of citizens of Macon assembled in the Col-
lege chapel to witness the opening scene. The hopes
of the friends of the College, and speculations of its
enemies, and the eager delight of the congregated
pupils, all conspired to invest the service with an in-
terest additional to its intrinsic importance."
On the first day ninety young ladies enrolled their
names as pupils ; during the term the number increased
to one hundred and sixty-eight.
Notwithstanding Dr. Pierce had traveled two years
as agent to collect funds to build the College and put
it in operation, the College was encumbered with a
large debt when it was opened. Dr. Pierce encoun-
tered many difficulties and met many objections to
the enterprise that would be considered ridiculous at
the present time. On one occasion he was urging
the claims of the College upon a gentleman of large
means and liberal views as to the education of his
sons, and received the reply : " No, I will not give
you a dollar. All that a woman needs to know is how
to read the New Testament, and to spin and weave
clothing for her family." Another man said : " I will
not give you a cent for any such purpose. I would
not have one of your graduates for a wife, for I
could never build even a pig-pen without her criticizing
it, and saying that it was not put up on mathematical
These prejudices did not die, and when the College
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 135
was about to enter on its fourth year, President El-
lison and Professor Darby deemed it wise to issue
a circular combating them. A question constantly
asked was, " Will the study of conic sections and spher-
ical trigonometry aid a woman in making a pudding,
or in performing any other household duty, and if
not, what is their use?" The answer given to this
was an eloquent vindication of " woman's right " to
the highest form of culture, including even the dry
subject of conic sections and spherical trigonometry.
This state of feeling made it impossible to get sub-
scriptions for the enterprise, and at the end of five
years the College was irretrievably bankrupt. Most
of the friends of the College surrendered the enter-
prise as an entire failure : but two of the number, Rev.
Samuel Anthony and William H. Ellison, determined
to make an effort to continue the school. They con-
sulted their friend Mr. William Scott, who suggested
that they should allow the sale to proceed, and that
they would find five other men who would assist them
in buying the property. The claim of the contractor,
Mr. Elam Alexander, was $10,000; this was divided
into shares of $i,coo, and five men took one share each
and two men took two shares each. The plan was car-
ried out, and the property became legally the property
of these men, who gave it to the Annual Conference
of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
They offered the building to the trustees for what
it had cost them.. Rev. Samuel Anthony was appointed
agent, and by many and laborious efforts he succeeded
in collecting about $2,000. Mr. James A. Everett
proposed to pay the remainder on condition that the
trustees would give him four perpetual scholarships.
The trustees accepted the proposition and secured a
title to the College building leg-ally and lawfully.
Thus the Georgia Female College passed out of ex-
istence. The College was given to the Annual Con-
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the
name changed to Wesleyan Female College. The
136 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
president and faculty resigned and were immediately
elected to fill like places in the Wesleyan. Thus the
College, without loss of time in its great work, passed
under a new jurisdiction and set out on a new career.
The new board of trustees was almost identical with
the old, almost every surviving member of the old
being retained in the new. Several women were added
to the faculty at this time, and ever since the faculty
has been largely composed of women. The College
was kept open during the War between the States
and went on regularly with its work, with the excep-
tion of two or three weeks, when General Sherman
passed by on his way to the sea, and of two or three
days when General Wilson took possession of the
city. During the winter of 1873 the exercises were
suspended for six weeks on account of an epidemic
of small-pox. With these exceptions the regular ex-
ercises of the school have not been interrupted since
the opening in 1839 until the present time.
During the collegiate year of 1859-60 the Alum-
naean Association was formed. This association holds
triennial reunions. These occasions have been highly
enjoyable. The following ladies have been president
of the association : Mrs. Harriet H. Boring, Mrs. M.
H. de Graffenreid, Mrs. A. B. Clayton, Mrs. Alice
C. Cobb, Mrs. Eugenia Fitzgerald, Mrs. C. E. Benson,
Mrs. L. V. Farrar, Mrs. W. R. Rogers.
Bishop George F Pierce was the first president of
the Georgia Female College, Dr. William H. Ellison
the second and also the first president of Wesleyan
College. During the sixty years of its existence the
College has had five presidents.
Degrees While the charter of the College author-
izes the trustees to confer all degrees usually con-
ferred by universities and colleges, they have only ex-
ercised that authority by conferring the following de-
grees: Degree Artium Baccalaureae, upon regular
graduates, and as an honorary degree. Degree Lit-
erarum Baccalaureae, conferred on all who complete
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 187
regular course with Latin language, but no modern
language. Degree Artium Magistrae. This degree
was conferred upon all regular graduates of ten years'
standing, up to 1886, when the custom was discon-
tinued. It may be conferred upon distinguished lit-
erary ladies, and upon candidates after careful examin-
ation in a prescribed course of study. Degree Ar-
tium Pingendi et Lineandi Baccalaureae is conferred
upon those who complete a full course in Art Depart-
ment. Degree Musica Baccalaureae is conferred upon
those who accomplish the prescribed course in Music
THE SENEY BENEFACTION
In the year 1881 Mr. George Ingraham Seney of
Brooklyn, New York, whose mother was an alumna of
Wesleyan, donated $125,000 to the College. Fifty
thousand of this amount was designated by him as a
permanent endowment fund for two chairs, one to be
called the " Lovick Pierce Chair of Mathematics and
Astronomy " ; the other was named by the trustees
" Seney Chair of Mental and Moral Science/' in honor
of the donor. Five thousand was designated by the
donor as a fund for furniture and grounds for a li-
brary; while $70,000 was placed at the disposal of
the trustees, and used by them for building and im-
In order to show the appreciation of the noble
Christian character of Mr. Seney, and of his generous
gift to the institution, Wesleyan has adopted his
birthday, which occurs on the I2th of May, as a regu-
lar College anniversary, to be known in the College
calendar as " Benefactor's Day," and to be observed
with suitable literary and musical exercises.
The origin of the Everett scholarships has already
been mentioned. These scholarships are not under the
control of the trustees or faculty, but are controlled
by the founder, Mr. James A. Everett, of Fort Valley,
Georgia. They secure to the holder board and tuition
138 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
in all departments of instruction. There are no regu-
larly endowed scholarships yielding revenue for the
gratuitous instruction of pupils, but the " lessee " of
the College gives free tuition in the " regular course,"
to all the daughters of all ministers who live by the
ministry, and to all worthy girls in needy circum-
stances who desire to prepare themselves to teach.
Free scholarships in tuition are offered to one pupil
each year in the Alexander School, and the high school
of the city of Macon, and to one pupil in the Bibb
County public schools; the pupils holding the highest
rank in their respective schools receiving the scholar-
ships as a reward of merit. The awards are made
annually and for one year.
(This sketch was prepared from catalogues.)
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 139
La Grange Female College, La Grange, Georgia,
THIS institution commenced its work under the
name of La Grange Female Academy, in 1833, under
the supervision of Rev. Thomas Stanley, a Methodist
minister. He taught successfully until his death in
J 835, when his wife, Mrs. Ellen Stanley, took charge
of the school until the close of the session. She was
succeeded by Mr. John Park, who continued until
1842. During that year Mr. Joseph T. Montgomery
leased the Academy from the trustees, and took charge
of the school January, 1843, beginning with thirteen
pupils. In less than two years the enrollment was
more than one hundred and increasing rapidly.
Mr. Montgomery wished to make it a school of high
grade, and a new charter was obtained granting the
privilege of conferring degrees, and La Grange Fe-
male Institute was organized with increased facilities
and extended charter privileges.
In 1846 the first three graduates of the new school
commenced the roster of alumnae which now contains
hundreds of names. Besides those who have com-
pleted the curriculum, received diplomas and had their
names recorded as children of their alma mater, hun-
dreds of others receiving here wholesome instruction
and fit preparation for after life have gone forth to
bless the world.
The College continuing to grow, it was deemed
necessary to increase its teaching facilities and to ex-
tend its charter privileges. On July 4, 1852, the cor-
ner-stone of old La Grange College was laid with ap-
propriate ceremonies by the Masonic fraternity of La
140 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Grange; and in June or July, 1853, the first class was
graduated in the new chapel.
Mr. Montgomery had associated with him his
brothers, Mr. Hugh T. Montgomery and Rev. T. F.
Montgomery. In December, 1856, the Messrs. Mont-
gomery sold their entire property to the Georgia Con-
ference of the M. E. Church South.
On March 28, 1860, the college building, with
pianos, library, apparatus, and many minor requisites
for a well-furnished school for girls were entirely
consumed. In less than thirty days $20,000 had been
subscribed and the work of rebuilding commenced.
Before the building was completed the War between
the States began, and financial ruin was the result.
In the division of the Georgia Conference this prop-
erty was given to the North Georgia Conference, and
was formally accepted at the Annual Conference held
at Augusta, Georgia, December, 1867. The walls
were then unfinished, and somewhat dilapidated by
exposure to the rains and frosts of seven winters. For
thirteen long years the Rev. J. R. Mayson labored
faithfully and energetically to rebuild the walls. The
friends of the enterprise were loyal and liberal even
in their poverty, and in Mareh, 1875, the work of
completion commenced and was finished in 1879.
Since that time the College has made steady, healthy
progress, under the presidency of Rev. J. R. Mayson,
and then of Dr. J. W. Heidt.
In 1885 Dr. Heidt resigned and Rufus W. Smith
was elected president.
In 1887 the increasing patronage required more
boarding room, and College Home was doubled in
size at a cost of $10,000. In 1891 the second annex
to College Home was built, and other improvements
made at a cost of $5,000. In 1892 Mr. William S.
Witham endowed the " Laura Haygood Witham Loan
Fund," with a donation of $10,000. The proceeds
of this fund are to be used in educating dependent
young ladies. In 1894 the College added a $4,000
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 141
pipe organ to the advantages of its music department.
In 1897 about $2,000 were spent in improving the
college grounds, home chapel, and college auditorium.
These facts and figures show that this valuable prop-
erty, estimated at $100,000, is making rapid progress
in material growth and improvement. Its record of
literary, moral, and religious status is no less en-
couraging. During the past five years its graduates,
with two or three exceptions, have gone forth Chris-
tian women. During the past session the entire
patronage of the boarding-department found the
" pearl of great price."- Over half of the alumnae are
engaged in successful teaching. In 1898 the prospects
were brighter than ever before.
(From letters, catalogue, and sketch furnished by
the president, Rufus W. Smith.)
Southern Female College, College Park, Georgia,
The first session of this school began January, 1843,
under the management of Rev. John E. Dawson,
D. D., whose aim was to establish a college of high
order for women. On account of failing health he
retired from the presidency during the year and was
succeeded by Milton E. Bacon, A. M. Through his
efforts the College was chartered under the name of
La Grange Female Seminary, in 1845. I n I ^5 tms
charter was amended and the name changed to La
Grange Collegiate Seminary for Young Ladies, Pro-
fessor Bacon being the sole incorporator. In 1852
the name was changed by Act of Legislature to South-
ern and Western College, all the rights, privileges,
and powers of the old corporation passing over to the
new. In 1854, by Act of Legislature, the name was
changed by Mr. Bacon to Southern Female College
of La Grange, and all the rights and privileges trans-
ferred and confirmed. In 1857, by Act of Legisla-
ture, the charter was again amended, and that provi-
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
sion of the original charter limiting the franchise to
a period of thirty years was repealed and its existence
Professor Bacon erected the buildings and conducted
the College as an " individual enterprise." Never
knight espoused a cause and followed it with more
ability, zeal, and chivalry than Mr. Bacon undertook
the education of girls, when it was a novel and doubt-
ful experiment. The faded and stained parchments
of the early records of the College, containing his
printed addresses and circulars in advocacy of the edu-
cation of girls, glow with noble enthusiasm as he com-
bats prejudice against his noble work and outlines the
ideal woman, consecrated and cultured. Under his
administration the College prospered wonderfully,
maintained high standards, received patronage from
all over the South, and achieved wide celebrity.
In 1855 President Bacon retired from the school
and removed to Mississippi. He was succeeded by
Hon. John A. Foster, A. M., who was joined by Rev.
Henry E. Brooks from Alabama, in 1856. As asso-
ciate presidents they conducted the school through
1856-57. In 1857 I. F. Cox, A. M., became president.
When he volunteered with the La Grange Home
Guards for the War between the States the community
asked for his detail, and arrangements were made for
him to teach in the basement of the Baptist Church,
as the College had been seized and was used for a
Confederate hospital. From 1860-63 Rev. W. H.
Roberts, D. D., was associate president, and for a year
or two sole president. From 1855 to 1864 the West-
ern Baptist Association owned a one-half interest in
the school. In 1864 the College building, while oc-
cupied by the Confederates, was accidentally burned,
and as the Southern government was then in ruins
and soon dissolved, it could make no recompense.
With the exception of some insurance paid in Con-
federate money that soon became worthless, the loss
was total, and Mr. Cox was the chief loser.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH
The distressing condition of the country during the
period of Reconstruction and recurring panic added
to the calamity of the College. With fortitude and
indomitable energy President Cox resolutely set to
work to overcome what seemed insurmountable
obstacles in the way of rebuilding and refurnishing the
institution. Alone, except with the aid of his wife,
he undertook the arduous work as a private enterprise.
The story of toil, self-denial, and struggle will never
be fully told on earth.
After teaching for several years in rented buildings,
first in one place and then in another, he purchased
in 1871, in his own name, a new site, paid for part of
the cost in cash, borrowed money at high rates of in-
terest, began the erection of buildings, and by degrees
paid off all claims. In recognition of his labors and
services for the College, and as a tribute to his per-
severance and success, the public gradually inaugu-
rated the custom of calling the institution " Cox Col-
lege," by which name it is now more generally known
than by its formal title.
The chapel on the south side of the grounds, erected
in 1877, besides being a monument to the enterprise
of President Cox, which indeed may be said of the
entire College, is also memorable evidence of the
generosity of the citizens of LaGrange and surround-
ing section, who largely aided in the construction of
that edifice by individual subscriptions amounting to
$2,345. Citizens also gave in 1872 about $800 in
contributions for the construction of the school build-
ing on the north side of the premises. These gifts
have been highly appreciated, and enabled the College
to show its gratitude to the community in many sub-
stantial ways. At the time of President Cox's tragic
death, which occurred from apoplexy in the midst of
the commencement exercises, June, 1887, he left the
College free from debt, equipped with handsome build-
ings, supplied with the best teaching appliances, and
strengthened by a large and able faculty. President
144 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Cox bequeathed the College to his family, who im-
mediately assumed charge. The administration was
as follows : Mrs. I. F. Cox, " Mother of the Col-
lege " ; Charles C. Cox, principal of the literary de-
partment; Misses Sallie and Alice Cox, directors of
music and disciplinarians in the College home; Mr.
W. S. Cox, business manager, and Miss M. E. Stakely,
In 1888 President Cox married the youngest
daughter of Milton E. Bacon, and the descendants of
the two men who established the College in fame and
prosperity as a private enterprise are united in per-
petuating, promoting, and extending the life-work of
their parents as a sacred trust and labor of love.
The semi-centennial celebration, during the com-
mencement of 1893, was a notable occasion. The
orator was Hon. Henry Watterson. The alumnae
reunion was especially impressive. Upon the stage
were seated grandmothers, with their daughters and
grandchildren, who offered tributes of love and praise
to their alma mater. It was a memorable scene as
the representatives of the classes from 1893 back to
1845 came forward to read their papers, now pre-
served among the historical records.
Feeling that it had done its full duty in the field
where it had labored so long and pleasantly, the Col-
lege decided, in the summer of 1895, to remove to
College Park, Atlanta, where it believes it may occupy
a wide territory of usefulness and honor. It pur-
chased for cash its extensive property and holds it free
of debt; has enlarged its work and increased its pat-
ronage. The removal was largely effected by the
labors of Mr. W. L. Stanton and Dr. J. B. Hawthorne,
and by the co-operation of the board of advisers at
large. The old charter has been transferred and con-
firmed for the College.
President Bacon usually prefaced the annual cata-
logues with remarks in behalf of the education of
women. His discussion of the utilitarian objections
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 145
to the education of women, in the catalogue of 1845,
is interesting as an exposition of the prevailing senti-
ment on that subject in Georgia in his day.
" If, in alleging that the education of women is un-
necessary, reference is had exclusively to its agency
in coining dimes and dollars, no argument need be
adduced. So contracted a view could not be affected
by an exhibition of its most evident benefits. The
same objections may be urged against food and dress.
The plainest diet and the coarsest apparel may subserve
the necessities of man; but the means used to elevate
his condition form the mainspring of civilized life.
It perpetuates the degradation of the savage, that he
is contented when the wants of nature are satisfied;
but it is the character of civilized man to aim at higher
attainments in his mental, moral, and physical condi-
tion, and to find happiness on loftier aspirations and
" The well-informed man who confines his views of
education simply to its pecuniary benefits does not
consider the happiness which his own acquirements
afford. Like the free air around him, though the
source of life and health, he has ever enjoyed its
gratuitous support with scarcely a reflection of its
While Professor Bacon entered with whole soul
into the arena for woman's cause, he deprecated
the ante-bellum Northern conception of the ideal of
womanhood that partakes of masculinity and
" woman's rights."
For several years after its organization, the school
opened its sessions in January, sometimes in February,
and continued work until the last of October or No-
vember. These sessions closed with public examina-
tions and the usual graduating exercises.
During Professor Bacon's administration there were
in 1850 13 officers of the College and 160 pupils; in
1851 there were 210 pupils, no being music pupils;
in 1852 there were 217 pupils, and in 1853, 220. The
146 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
patronage was drawn from Georgia, Tennessee, Ken-
tucky, and Texas. Of late years no less than ten
States are usually represented in the boarding-depart-
ment, and students are enrolled from Canada to Mex-
ico and Cuba, and from all over the United States.
The average yearly enrollment has been 200, of whom
nearly one-half have been boarders. During the first
session after the removal of the College to College
Park (1895-6), there were in attendance over 200
pupils from a distance, representing eleven States and
one foreign country 146 music pupils, 52 in art, and
40 in elocution.
The College is located in a suburb of Atlanta, the
situation furnishing on the one hand the freedom and
peace of rural life and on the other embracing the ap-
proved attractions of a city. The campus includes
about forty acres, of which twelve at the front are
devoted to the cultivation of choice ornamental plants,
many being quite rare, while the remaining area is
used as experiment grounds for fruits and vegetables.
The main building is constructed of stone, brick, and
slate, and supplied with all modern conveniences. A
gymnasium is properly equipped, recreation grounds
for tennis and other games are laid off, and an in-
firmary or retreat is conducted by an experienced
nurse. The teaching appliances include a library of
five thousand volumes; a museum of natural history
and industrial chemistry with about seven thousand
five hundred specimens; physical and chemical labora-
tories; a four-inch telescope with other astronomical
outfit; also well-furnished studios for art and music.
All primary work has been discontinued, and the
time is devoted exclusively to college work. This
work is divided into, I. College of Liberal Arts, which
is organized into the following schools : Mathematics,
English, Latin, Greek, modern languages, natural
sciences, history and Bible philosophy, and elocution.
II. College of Fine Arts: This department of the
College consists of music, drawing, and painting.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 147
III. College of Practical Arts: This department is
divided into commercial arts; book-keeping, penman-
ship, phonography, and typewriting. IV. Household
Arts: This department includes dressmaking, cook-
ery, home decoration and embroidery.
Music, painting, and elocution are specialties for
which this college has long been distinguished, and its
summer concert tours have attracted much attention.
A Christian atmosphere pervades the school. At
daily twilight prayers all the hundreds of pupils who
have ever attended the College are remembered in
prayer. Many of the old pupils send back requests for
prayer as they enter upon new duties and trials. A
religious meeting is conducted every Sunday evening
by the teachers of the College. Bible study is promi-
nent in college work. The degrees conferred are A. B.,
A. M., B. L. The aim of this school, above all things,
is to prepare for home life.
(From catalogues sent by Dr. Cox.)
Andrew College for Girls, Cuthbert, Georgia, 1854-
Andrew College is the property of the Methodist
Episcopal Church South, and is controlled by the South
Georgia Conference, being the only college for girls
belonging wholly to this Conference.
Andrew was founded in 1854, very largely through
the heroic efforts and sacrifices of Rev. Jno. H. Cald-
well, who spent much time and money in securing the
erection of the first buildings of the College.
A. A. Allen was the first president, and at the end
of the first year of his presidency was succeeded by a
man who afterward became a noted figure in Georgia
Methodism, Rev. Weyman H. Potter. He was suc-
ceeded by Rev. Oliver P. Anthony, who in turn was
succeeded by Rev. Morgan Calloway, whose adminis-
tration continued to the opening of the War between
the States, when he gave up the work of the school-
148 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
room to take the field of active military service. The
College was practically closed, its buildings for a part
of the time being used as a Confederate hospital. Mean-
while, the ladies conducted a private school in connec-
tion with the College. In 1866 the College proper
was again opened, and Dr. A. L. Hamilton was elected
president. Under his able administration and man-
agement the College grew rapidly in influence and
reputation. After finishing his fifth year as president
of the College, Dr. Hamilton resigned, and was suc-
ceeded by Rev. J. B. McGehee and Capt. A. H. Flewel-
len as joint presidents.
In 1872 Dr. McGehee resigned and Captain Flewel-
len continued at the head of the College until 1887,
when Dr. Hamilton was again called to preside over
the affairs of Andrew. He remained at this post till
the early spring of 1881, when death closed his earthly
labors. The trustees placed Mrs. Hamilton in charge
for the remainder of that session.
In the fall of 1881 Dr. Howard Key was called to
take up the work of the lamented Hamilton. For ten
years the College enjoyed much prosperity under his
management, and its patronage was widely extended.
His successor, Rev. P. S. Twitty, held the office for
four years, and of all men who have labored for the
College, none have had greater obstacles to surmount
than he met when in 1892, near the close of a pros-
perous year, the entire buildings and nearly all the
equipments were destroyed by fire. In the midst of
financial depression, by persistent labors, with the
assistance of the South Georgia Conference, he suc-
ceeded in obtaining funds to build the present struc-
ture, one of the best in the State. In 1895 he was
succeeded by Rev. Homer Bush, who continues in
Cuthbert has a very high elevation, being the high-
est place between Macon and Montgomery. This
renders it free from malaria and causes it to have a
health record unsurpassed. Andrew is a Christian
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 149
school. The managers believe that any education
claiming to be complete must develop not only the
physical, mental, and moral side of our being but
must also give special attention to the spiritual. The
Bible is taught as a regular text-book in all four of the
College classes not in the least with a purpose of
inculcating sectarian bias, but for the sole end of de-
veloping a high type and healthful form of Christian
The corps of instructors is composed of teachers of
successful experience, whose educational advantages
have been the best to be obtained.
A large three-story building has recently been added
to the equipment. Some of the appointments are large
grounds, a tennis court, croquet sets, a natatorium, a
well-selected library, a well-supplied reading-room, and
Lucy Cobb Institute, Athens, Georgia, 1858-1908
Early in the year 1857 there appeared in the Athens
Watchman a striking article on the subject of " The
Education of Our Girls." The article called atten-
tion to the fact that the State provided at Athens every
advantage of culture and education for the boys, but
had made no provision for the girls. It proceeded to
show that woman had received from her Creator the
" same intellectual constitution as man, and had the
same right to intellectual culture and development."
The article was signed " Mother," and it was a most
earnest plea for equal advantages of education for boys
and girls. It caught the eye of Gen. T. R. R. Cobb,
at that time one of the leading lawyers and most pro-
gressive men of the town. He had several intelligent
and promising young daughters, and he immediately
realized the necessity of providing such a school in the
town as would obviate the necessity of sending girls
out of the State to be educated. No sooner did he see
that a thing ought to be done than he went to work
150 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
to do it. Being a leader in almost every enterprise
in the town, he soon succeeded in raising a sufficient
amount of money to purchase the land and to have the
present school building erected. He believed that
everything that was worth doing at all was worth do-
ing well, so that the building was designed and built
in the very best manner. After its completion the
equipment was the very best that could be procured.
The parlors, bedrooms, dining-halls, and school halls
were all furnished in the most comfortable and attrac-
" Lucy Cobb " was designed as a home for her
pupils, and essentially a home it was then and has
been ever since. A faculty of the very best teachers
was employed, and in 1858 the doors of the institute
were thrown open to young women of the South.
Just about the time of the opening of the school, Lucy
Cobb, the eldest daughter of Gen. T. R. R. Cobb, died,
and the trustees, who had been chosen by the stock-
holders of the school, met and unanimously decided to
name it in honor of her, the daughter of the
The school, from its beginning, became popular,
and was then, as it is now, patronized by the best
families of the South. Even during the War between
the States, when business was interrupted, railroad
communication destroyed, fortunes threatened, this
school was full.
During its history of forty-five years the following
principals and presidents have presided over its inter-
ests and affairs: R. M. Wright, 1859-1860; W. H.
Muller, 1860-1862; Madam S. Sosnowski, 1862-1869;
Rev. Mr. Jacobs, 1869-1870; Mrs. A. E. Wright,
1870-1873; Mrs. A. E. Wright and Rev. P. A. Heard,
associate principals, 1873-1880. For the past twenty-
three years Lucy Cobb has been under the manage-
ment of Miss M. Rutherford and Mrs. M. A. Lips-
comb, nieces of Gen. T. R. R. Cobb, the founder, and,
what seems a coincidence, the daughters of the mother
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 151
whose article on " The Education of Our Girls " first
attracted the notice of General Cobb.
Year by year the curriculum of the Institute has
been advanced, until it is abreast with the leading- col-
leges for young women in the land. Within the last
few years a beautiful addition to the school has been
made, the Seney-Stovall Chapel, a gift from Mr.
George I. Seney of New York. It is admirably
adapted to all commencement exercises and entertain-
ments. Mr. Seney placed in it a large pipe organ.
The Art Department is also indebted to Mr. Seney
for eighteen large paintings, the work of eminent
artists. These paintings are placed in the parlors and
reading-rooms, where they are a constant source of
pleasure and inspiration to the students. One of them
is a portrait of " Aunt Dot," by E. L. Henry, who was
sent out from New York to paint the portrait of this
faithful retainer of the Institute; and another a family
servant of the principal. The artist has admirably
portrayed the kindliness, honesty, and faithfulness of
a representative Southern slave as she stands in char-
acteristic attitude, ready for duty when called upon
There is a pleasant piece of history connected
with Mr. Seney 's interest in the Lucy Cobb and his
numerous gifts to it. When it became apparent
that a new chapel was necessary for the advance-
ment of the school, Miss Rutherford, who was
then principal, began to devise means to procure the
necessary funds to build it. The citizens of Athens
were called upon for contributions. Many responded,
but the sum collected was not sufficient. Finally, one
day Miss Rutherford called the school together and
asked if each girl would not make an individual effort
to procure the needed funds outside of Athens. The
pupils were enthusiastic, and wrote to various friends
and the leading philanthropists of the North and South
for aid, and many responded with gifts from five dol-
lars up to five hundred. Gen. Henry R. Jackson of
152 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Savannah, Georgia, was one of the most liberal con-
tributors. A beautiful and girlish letter from the
hand of Miss Nellie Stovall, telling the needs of the
school, touched the heart of Mr. George I. Seney, and
the Seney-Stovall Chapel, which stands to-day as a
monument to a cultured Southern woman and to this
great philanthropist, is the result.
The school is without endowment, but the present
principal is endeavoring to secure an educational fund
which will enable her to make loans to deserving and
ambitious young women on condition that when they
become self-supporting they return the funds, thus
making these funds a constant benefaction.
The course of study is divided into primary, inter-
mediate, and collegiate; the last two requiring four
years each for completion. The Institute provides a
course of lectures supplementary to its regular course.
These lectures will be given by the professors of the
University of Georgia and by specialists in the lecture
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 153
Early Schools of Kentucky
INTEREST in the history of education in Kentucky,
from the early settlement to 1820, centers in the de-
velopment of the splendid system of higher education,
a State University and a subsidiary academy in each
county. These academies were quite fully developed,
and reached their culmination during this period;
while Transylvania University was fairly established.
This system made no provision for the education of
girls; in fact, they were entirely excluded from these
schools. The only schools open to them were the " old
field " schools ; perchance, in some neighborhoods, a
school supported by a few families. For a consider-
able period the only schools in the State claiming to
give girls a grammar-school course were those of Rev.
John Lyle, at Paris, and of Mrs. Keats, at Washing-
ton, Mason County.
Rev. John Lyle's School, Paris, Kentucky
Rev. John Lyle was one of the Presbyterian min-
isters prominent in the early history of Kentucky. He
attempted to supply the great lack of educational facil-
ities for girls by opening, in 1806, at Paris, the first
seminary for girls in Kentucky. Mr. Lyle proved a suc-
cessful teacher, and soon had a school of 200 or more
pupils. He continued his school until 1810, when he
withdrew from the seminary because some persons con-
nected with the school refused to allow the Bible to be
read publicly in the school. His withdrawal seems
to have broken up the school, as nothing more is
known concerning it.
154 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Mrs. Louisa Fitzherbert Keats's School, Washington,
In 1807 Mrs. Keats opened a school for girls at
Washington, the most important town in Mason
County. It is said the daughters and wives of many
of the distinguished men of the State received their
scholastic training in this school, which was very
popular at that time. For some unknown reason it
was closed in 1812.
Lafayette Seminary, Lexington, Kentucky
" This Seminary was established in 1821 at Lexing-
ton. An annual announcement of the Seminary for
1825 says it was visited by Lafayette on May 16, 1825.
It had then 9 instructors and 135 pupils, and in the
four years previous had had altogether 366 pupils. It
claimed to furnish every facility ' for making thor-
ough and accomplished scholars/ ' (Lewis's " His-
tory of Higher Education in Kentucky.")
Science Hill, Kentucky, 1825-1908
Since the days of John Wesley, Methodists have
been interested in education, hence it is no surprise to
find that Rev. John Tevis, a member of the Kentucky
Conference, and his wife opened a school for girls
at Science Hill, March 25, 1825. It was and still is
a private enterprise, without a dollar of endowment,
having no support from any source but from its pupils.
Although Mr. Tevis was associated with Mrs. Tevis
in conducting the school, and rendered efficient services
in its behalf, yet from the inception of the enterprise
the burden was borne by Mrs. Tevis, and to her must
be attributed the largest share of its success. After
the death of Mr. Tevis, in 1861, she conducted the
school alone until 1879, when Dr. W. T. Poynter pur-
chased it. Mrs. Tevis remained at Science Hill until
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 155
her death in 1880. She was a gifted woman, far
ahead of her time, and had a strong and fine influence
over her pupils, who remember her with great admira-
tion and affection. Her life was strong and helpful,
her old age was lovely; to the last she was full of
energy, full of interest in past and present, full of
faith and hope and love.
Prior to the War between the States many hundreds
of girls attended school at Science Hill, often remain-
ing four or five years without returning home, as steam
had not then annihilated distance. During the war
many girls from the South remained with Mrs. Tevis
two or three years, some never hearing from home
during that time. They remained at the expense of
that noble-spirited woman. After the war the South-
ern patronage was greatly diminished, owing largely
to the impoverishment caused by the war.
Science Hill was the third academy for girls estab-
lished in Kentucky, and the second oldest academy
(Protestant) that has continued to the present day.
The school was small at first, the enrollment for the
first term being but 20, four of whom were boarders ;
but gradually the prejudice in Kentucky against higher
education for girls was overcome, a reputation was
established, and the rooms were crowded the matric-
ulation being limited only by the accommodations that
could be offered. The catalogue of 1859 shows an
enrollment of 370.
Science Hill celebrated the closing of her seventy-
fifth year June 3, 4, 5, 1900, with a diamond jubilee
a grand reunion of former pupils. They assembled
from nearly all the Southern States and many of the
Northern and Western, 800 being present the last day.
Ladies were present who had attended the school in
1831, '33, '35 and so on. When they parted sixty-
four years before they were in the bloom of youth,
bright with anticipations for the future; now they
were faded, white-haired pilgrims nearly at the jour-
156 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
The school was always a preparatory school, the
course offered comprising the usual English studies,
music, and French.
When Dr. Poynter took charge of the school he
changed the course to make it a secondary school in
the fullest sense of the term, its requirements being
made to conform to those laid down by the Committee
of Ten. The school is correlated with Wellesley and
Vassar, but its diploma admits to other colleges of first
rank. A diploma admits to the freshman class of
these colleges, and the course in music prepares for the
fifth grade in the New England Conservatory.
The faculty is composed of college-trained women,
each a specialist in her department. The music teach-
ers are also skilled musicians. No Sham is the motto
of teachers and pupils. The school has had only two
principals. Mrs. Tevis was principal for fifty-four
years, and since that time Mrs. Poynter has had
charge, though she was assisted by Dr. Poynter until
his death. Few institutions have been so favored.
The school is now known as an " English and Classical
School for Girls."
The buildings at first consisted of one dwelling-
house, and as there were no funds save the profits of
the school, the enlargement was gradual ; but after the
reputation was established new buildings were added
every vacation, until the equipment was ample for
the accommodation of three or four hundred girls.
The last building added during Mrs. Tevis's regime
was the large chapel, opened in 1860. The buildings
have been remodeled to conform to modern ideas of
comfort and convenience, and the library and scientific
apparatus and other means of instruction have been
enlarged and otherwise adapted to the requirements of
modern teaching. Almost all the records of the school
during Mrs. Tevis's administration have been lost, but
it is known that more than 2,000 pupils had been edu-
cated in the school in Mr. Tevis's lifetime, and more
than 3,000 up to 1875. The average attendance in
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 157
recent years is 130 and in many instances the pupils
are the daughters and even the granddaughters of
(From catalogues, and letters from Mrs. Poynter.)
Beaumont College, Harrodsburg, Kentucky, 1841-
The college now known as Beaumont College had
its origin in 1841, when Prof. S. G. Mullins bought
the property and founded Greenville Springs College,
which he conducted as president till the close of the
collegiate year, in June, 1856.
In the summer of 1856 the College was bought by
Dr. C. E. Williams and his son, Prof. Augustus Wil-
liams. In September of the same year (1856) Prof.
John A. Williams as president changed the name of
the school to " Daughters' College," and conducted it
with marked success as such till the summer of 1893.
In 1894 the College, with all its grounds, buildings,
and appurtenances was bought by Th. Smith, who as
its president changed the name to Beaumont College.
Professor Smith opened the school in September, 1894,
since which time he has continued in charge. The
curriculum is a broader and more comprehensive one
than it has had in its previous history. The aim of
Professor Smith is to make the work more distinctively
university work than is usually done in schools for
Beaumont College provides good facilities for teach-
ing art, music, elocution, and physical culture; but
especial stress is given to music. In addition to the
conservatory course, a normal course in piano, organ
and singing is offered. Like its predecessors, Beau-
mont College is entirely a private enterprise. It is
an accredited school of the University of Tennessee,
and prepares for the best American and German Uni-
(This sketch was furnished by Professor Smith,
158 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
who also sent a catalogue from which a few addi-
tional facts were taken.)
Caldwell College, Danville, Kentucky, 1859-1908
Schools for girls were established in Danville at an
early period of its history, the first of these being
founded by Rev. J. K. Burch, who was for a time a
professor in a theological department attached to
Center College. None of these schools had a first-
class equipment and their duration was short. Very
soon after its establishment, Danville became an edu-
cational center for young men, especially among the
Presbyterians, who also endeavored to provide equal
advantages for their daughters. A united and deter-
mined effort toward the accomplishment of this pur-
pose was made in 1856. In this enterprise the more
intelligent citizens of the town of Danville and Boyle
County were interested, but the Presbyterians were the
prime movers. After much canvassing and many ear-
nest, eloquent addresses had been delivered in favor of
the higher education of women, an amount sufficient to
purchase a lot and erect a building was raised. In
1859 Prof. A. E. Sloan of Alabama was elected prin-
cipal. At his suggestion another building equal in size
to the first was erected, and school opened in 1860 with
a large attendance and every prospect of success.
The original name of the institution was Henderson
Institute, but in consideration of the great liberality
of Mr. Charles Caldwell the name was changed to
Caldwell Institute; and under this name a charter
was obtained for the enterprise, placing it under the
management of the two Presbyterian churches. A
disagreement between these Presbyterian churches con-
cerning the issues of the War of 1861-65 and the
withdrawal of the Southern patronage, on which the
management had largely depended, made it necessary
to close the school in 1862. It remained closed two
years, then a Mr. Hart opened school and taught two
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 159
years, when the original management elected Rev.
L. G. Barbour principal. He conducted a good school
for eight years, and resigned to accept a chair in the
newly established Central University. The lack of
co-operation between the controlling Presbyterian
churches had for some time greatly impaired the use-
fulness of the school. They had become divided by
the issues of the war, and now decided not to occupy
the property conjointly. Finally an arrangement was
made by which the Second Presbyterian Church as-
sumed the indebtedness of $20,000 and control of the
school. Since that time the elders of that church
have acted as trustees.
Prof. W. P. Hussey of Boston, Massachusetts, suc-
ceeded Dr. Barbour as principal of the school. His
enthusiasm infused new life into the school, and his
plans to raise the standard and enlarge the scope of
the work were favorably received. His first step was
to induce the trustees to apply for a new charter, which
changed the name to Caldwell College, a distinctive
name which defined the character of the school.
In 1876 the buildings were destroyed by fire. Noth-
ing remained but the ground, which was sold as town
lots. With the funds thus obtained another lot was
purchased, a building erected, and school was re-
opened in 1880 under the management of Rev. John
Montgomery, president. Mr. Montgomery conducted
a fairly successful school for six years, and during his
superintendency the material equipment was increased
by the addition of a brick chapel. In 1886 Miss C. A.
Campbell succeeded Mr. Montgomery, and was a suc-
cessful manager for eleven years. During her admin-
istration a large building containing four large recita-
tion-rooms and a gymnasium was added to the equip-
ment. A new charter was obtained granting the
power to confer degrees, a power the college did not
have under the old charter, the standard raised, and
the course of study enlarged, the aim being to make it
equal to that of the colleges for men.
160 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Miss Campbell was succeeded by Rev. J. D. Ely,
who seems to be maintaining the prosperity of the in-
stitution. A recent catalogue announces that all mod-
ern conveniences have been added to the building, and
a well-ordered home is offered to the boarders.
Professor Ely has extended the preparatory course one
year, thus making the time required for the full course
seven instead of six years. The College offers four
courses : a classical course, which entitles the graduate
to A.B. degree; a scientific course, which entitles to
B.S. degree; a seminary course, which entitles to a
diploma. An elective course has been arranged for
those who cannot complete the degree courses. A
normal course has been added for the benefit of those
preparing to teach.
The other departments of the school are the schools
of modern languages, music, art, elocution, physical
culture, and business; the last includes stenography,
typewriting, book-keeping and telegraphy.
The institution was originally established to provide
facilities for higher education for women, and Presi-
dent Ely thus states the present purpose of the institu-
tion : " . . . nor shall we retrench in any effort to make
it one of the leading institutions in the State for the
higher education of women. The idea should be to
afford the highest and broadest intellectual training,
and at the same time preserve the essential character-
istics of a refined Christian home. Our aim will be
to give a broad and generous culture, founded upon
Christian principles, so that those seeking its advan-
tages shall become intelligent and cultured Christian
(The facts contained in this sketch have been ob-
tained from Lewis's " History of Higher Education
in Kentucky/' from catalogues, and correspondence.)
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 161
Early Schools in Louisiana
ALTHOUGH the colonists did not give much atten-
tion to the establishment of schools during the French
or the Spanish supremacy, yet a school for girls the
Ursuline Convent was established in 1727; this
school claims the distinction of being the first school
for girls ever established in the United States.
The educational apathy seems to have been dispelled,
to some extent, by the transfer from European
dominion to republican rule; for the first Territorial
Legislature, notwithstanding the commotion produced
by the transfer, passed " An Act to institute an uni-
versity in the Territory of Orleans." This Univer-
sity was to be called and known by the name of " The
University of Orleans." Section IV of this Act re-
quired the regents of the University to establish, as
speedily as may be, within each county, one or more
academies for the instruction of youth in the French
and English languages."
The next section is introduced by a short preamble :
" And whereas the prosperity of every State depends
greatly on the education of the female sex, in so much
that the dignity of their condition is the strongest char-
acteristic which distinguishes civilized from savage
society; Be it further enacted, That the said regents
shall establish such a number of academies in this
Territory as they may judge fit for the instruction of
the youth of the female sex in the English and French
languages, and in such branches of polite literature and
such liberal arts and accomplishments as may be suit-
able to the age and sex of the pupils."
These schools were not free schools, and therefore
162 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
did not meet the approval of Governor William C. C.
Claiborne, and no action was taken until 1806, when
an Act establishing free schools was passed. Still the
authorities were in no hurry to put in force the provi-
sions of the act; not before 1811, when the Legislature
made the first appropriations to the academies, allow-
ing $2,000 to each of twelve counties for buildings,
and $500 for salaries, is there any record of academies.
Even then there is no mention of academies for girls,
under State control, but this deficiency was supplied
by private enterprise; but as these schools were not
chartered and no records were kept, it is difficult al-
most impossible to find any details of them.
On March 6, 1819, the Academy of Natchitoches
was chartered by a total of forty-eight incorporators,
who were empowered to elect from their own number
five trustees. The charter required the establishment
of a school for boys and one for girls ; in both French
and English were to be taught, and such other lan-
guages, ancient and modern, as the funds would ad-
mit, as well as the usual academic studies.
The Academy of Ouachita, Ouachita, Louisiana,
was opened in 1811, but the location of the building
proved very unsatisfactory, and in 1824 the building
was sold and suitable quarters in a convenient place
secured. After the change the school was known as
Ouachita Academy. The provisions of the charter re-
garding funds leads to the conclusion that this charter
also provided for a school for girls.
The Academy of Covington was another school of
the same class and established by a similar charter;
but Clinton Female Academy was distinctively a school
for girls. It was incorporated March n, 1830, and
put under the trusteeship of seven trustees. Nothing
was said as to the scope of studies, neither were the
duties of these trustees defined ; they were simply em-
powered " to direct and establish plans of education
in said academy if deemed necessary by the board."
Ouachita Female Academy, Ouachita, Louisiana,
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 163
was incorporated on March 12, 1837; the seven
trustees were simply empowered to " direct and estab-
lish plans of education, if deemed necessary by the
An appropriation annually for five years was made
to Clinton Female Academy and to Ouachita Female
Academy, on condition that ten indigent children re-
ceive instruction each year.
Covington Female Seminary was incorporated
March 13, 1837. An appropriation of $4,000 was
granted, conditioned on maintaining and instructing
four indigent females, to be taken from each of the
parishes of the senatorial district.
On March 7, 1838, Johnson Female Academy, of
Donaldsonville, and Greensburgh Female Academy
were incorporated. An appropriation of $1,000 an-
nually for five years was given, on condition that the
Johnson Academy should board and instruct five in-
digent children from the fifth senatorial district; and
the Greensburgh Seminary should board and instruct
ten poor children during that period.
Minden Female Seminary was incorporated March
12, 1838, and an appropriation of $1,000 annually for
five years was made, conditioned on free instruction
of ten children.
Union Male and Female Academy was incorporated
March 8, 1841, and received an appropriation of
$1,500 without stipulations.
Silliman Female Collegiate Institute, 1852-1908
This institution is located in the suburbs of Clinton,
the site of East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, 120 miles
north of New Orleans and about 100 miles south of
The institution began under the management of <\
joint stock company, chartered in 1852 by the Louisi-
ana Legislature. In 1856 Mr. Silliman donated to the
Presbytery of Louisiana 102 shares (being a majority
164 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
of the stock) valued at $5,000. The interests of the
Presbytery continued until 1866, when the institution,
having become embarrassed under the joint manage-
ment, was sold and the entire interest, valued at
$10,000, was purchased by Mr. William Silliman, and
by him donated to the Presbytery in 1866.
In October of the same year Mr. Silliman made an-
other donation of $20,000 to constitute an endowment,
the interest only to be used for education of girls,
under the direction of the Presbytery's local board of
By will, Mr. David Pipes left $500 as a fund toward
building a concert hall for the institution.
Mrs. A. R. Dickinson had established a school in
Plaquemine, Louisiana, but it did not succeed, and she
transferred the fund to Silliman Institute, the interest
of which is to be used to pay the board of daughters
of Presbyterian ministers. In honor of the donors of
these funds the building recently added to the college
was named " Pipes-Dickinson Annex."
The institution has been successively presided over
by Rev. H. Mosely, Rev. A. G. Payne, Rev. James
Stratton, Mr. Edwin Fay, Mrs. E. H. Fay, George
G. Ramsay, and Rev. Frank W. Lewis, D.D. Rev.
H. H. Brownlee was elected August, 1906, to preside
in the future.
There are four departments, as follows:
I. Primary and Preparatory Department.
II. Collegiate Department. In this department
there are seven schools, or sub-departments, separate
and distinct, and the pupil may, at her option, become
a candidate for graduation in any one, or in all. i.
School of English Language and Literature, compris-
ing analysis and composition, rhetoric, English litera-
ture, parallel readings. 2. School of History, com-
prising history of England ; history of France ; general
history. 3. School of Mathematics, comprising
arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry plane
and spherical; analytical geometry. 4. School of
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 165
Natural Science, comprising physiology, botany, phys-
ical geography, physics, chemistry, astronomy,
geology. 5. School of Ethics, comprising mental and
moral science, logic, evidences of Christianity, civil
government. 6. School of Ancient Languages, com-
prising Latin and Greek. 7. School of Modern Lan-
guages, comprising French and German.
III. Department of Fine Arts. 8. School of Music
instruction given on the piano, organ, violin, guitar,
and mandolin. The cultivation of the voice, singing
at sight, part singing, thorough bass, harmony, ora-
torio and chorus practice. 9. School of Drawing and
Painting. It is the aim of this school to give a prac-
tical knowledge of the arts of form, color, and design,
and to awaken in students true appreciation of artistic
work. The studio is well supplied with casts and
studies. 10. School of Physical Culture and Expres-
sion. Physical culture has for its aim the harmonious
development of the entire body. To secure the
" sound mind in the sound body " so necessary for
happiness and success. The course of physical train-
ing includes Delsarte, Swedish, and light gymnastics.
The aim of the Department of Expression is primarily
the development of personal power. It has in view
the physical, mental, and moral development of the
pupil, and also the thorough appreciation and correct
interpretation of good literature.
IV. Business Department. The course of study in-
cludes shorthand, typewriting, book-keeping, and com-
The buildings were originally erected at a cost of
$30,000; in 1894 an annex one hundred by fifty feet
was completed at a cost of about $15,000.
The school is well supplied with charts, maps, and
globes ; the chemical and physical laboratories are well
furnished and additions are constantly being made.
The reading-room is well supplied with religious and
secular newspapers, and the leading magazines, and
will be open every day except Sunday.
166 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
The Sigma Phi Literary Society, an association
organized and conducted by the young ladies, holds
weekly meetings. It is regarded as a valuable auxil-
iary to the usual methods of instruction, cultivat-
ing ease of speech and composition, and love of
higher literary culture. Lambda Delta Fraternity
was organized in 1906. Its aims are social
Each year arrangements are made for lectures, read-
ings and musicales.
Though the school is under Presbyterian control, it
is avowedly and conscientiously non-sectarian in its
aims and purposes. However, it takes its place in full-
est sympathy with Christian morals and culture, and
all proper means are used to direct the young -to the
Saviour, without interfering with denominational pref-
A certificate of proficiency is given in each study at
the intermediate and final examinations when the
student has passed successfully upon the work of the
previous half session. A certificate of distinction is
given at the final examinations to each student whose
general average of scholarship for the past year is
as much or more than 9 (10 being the highest grade)
and her name is placed on the " Honor Roll." A
diploma, with the title of " Graduate " in each partic-
ular school, is awarded after satisfactory examination
in all the studies of that school. This includes the
schools of Music and Art. The degrees are B.S., B.L..
B.A., and M.A.
(From catalogues sent by the president, Rev. H. H.
Keachle Female College, Keachie, Louisiana,
This college was founded in 1856 by the Baptist
denomination. Like the Silliman Institute at Clinton
founded by the Presbyterians, and Mansfield founded
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 167
by the Methodists, this college has had various vicissi-
tudes, but it is still doing the work for which it was
originally organized a college for women. The work
was suspended during the War between the States, and
the building used as a hospital for Confederate sol-
diers. After the war it became Keachie College, a
co-educational institution. In 1887 the name was
changed to Keachie Male and Female College. In
1899 ^ was rechartered, and the name changed to
Louisiana Female College, becoming then a school
for girls and young women exclusively, as was first
Rev. J. H. Tucker was president from 1857 to 1861 ;
exercises suspended from 1861 to 1865; Rev. Peter
Crawford was president from 1865 t I ^7 I > Rev. J.
H. Tucker from 1871 to 1881 ; Rev. T. N. Coleman
from 1 88 1 to 1886; Rev. P. Fountain from 1886 to
1889; Rev. C. W. Taukies from 1889 to 1899; Rev.
G. W. Thigpen from 1899 to present time.
The course of study is distributed into separate
schools of Latin, Greek ; English ; history ; philosophy ;
mathematics ; geology and biology ; natural philosophy
and chemistry; modern languages; music; art.
Candidates for the B. A. degree may substitute
French and German for Greek. Those for the B. L.
degree may take two years of Latin in place of Ger-
The school has well equipped studios for music and
art; and makes quite a feature of needlework.
(The material for this sketch is taken from a letter
from Dr. Thigpen, and a catalogue sent by him.)
There was a college in Minden, founded about the
same time as the three colleges already mentioned ; it
was suspended during the War between the States,
and never reopened as a college, and when the pres-
ent school system was organized the building was
used for the Minden High School. (From a private
168 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Mansfield Female College, Mansfield, Louisiana,
In 1854, when this fertile section of the country was
rapidly settling up and attracting the attention of the
emigrant from older States, Dr. Thweatt saw the
need for an institution of high grade at some point
west of the Mississippi. He came to the parish of
Caddo, and met Rev. William E. Doty, a liberal and
intelligent man, and of ardent temperament and en-
thusiastic nature like himself, who was possessed with
considerable wealth and influence. They set out to-
gether on a prospecting tour for a location of a fe-
male college. When they reached Mansfield, DeSoto
Parish, they found an ideal location. They selected
the site where the College now stands, on an elevated
plateau forming the watershed between the Red and
Sabine rivers a location free from malaria, with a
dry sandy soil, and a rich agricultural country on all
Dr. Thweatt resolved to build a college here with
ample facilities for the education of the daughters
of the land. He immediately entered upon an active
canvass of the subject before the people, without, at
first, much success; but his earnestness and zeal soon
inspired them with an interest in the subject. His
efforts in behalf of the founding of this institution were
met by liberal voluntary contributions on the part of
the citizens of Mansfield and surrounding country,
amounting in the aggregate to quite $30,000.
The foundation stone of this splendid college edifice
was laid the latter part of the year 1854. Mean-
while, the school was opened in a commodious frame
structure, now standing in the rear of the College
building, and used as a dining-hall. In 1856 the main
building as it now stands was completed and opened
for the intended purpose of a college.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 169
The first president of this institution said of the
establishment of the College : " In the enlightened
wisdom and by the munificent liberality of the citizens
of Mansfield, this Institution was projected." By their
magnanimity, generosity, and public spirit these
grounds and this college building were presented to
the Louisiana Annual Conference of the Methodist
Episcopal Church South, and placed under its direc-
tion and control in the month of January, 1855. The
institution was adopted by the Conference, which as-
sumed control of its affairs. Its founder, Rev. H. C.
Thweatt, a graduate of the University of Virginia,
was made its first president.
The Act of the General Assembly No. 88 of the
session of 1855 which granted a charter to this col-
lege, was approved on March 9, 1855.
The subscriptions had not all been paid when the
War between the States began, and then could not be
collected ; therefore the College was sold to pay these
unpaid balances, and Mr. Lewis Phillips, then a resi-
dent of Mansfield, became the purchaser. During the
greater portion of the four years of struggle the school
was closed and its campus a tented field. But before
the smoke of battle had cleared, in 1864, Dr. John C.
Keener, afterward Bishop Keener, purchased the
property, and freed it of debt and gave it to the
Louisiana Conference. Dr. Charles B. Stuart was
made president. Since then the College has been under
the presidency of Rev. Thomas Armstrong, to 1880;
J. Lane Borden, to 1883; Rev. F. M. Grace, to 1889;
Rev. A. D. McVoy, to 1896. In 1896 President
Sligh was elected to the presidency, and has retained
the place ever since.
President Sligh came to this institution with the
prestige of eminent scholarship, and years of experi-
ence as a successful educator. A new era seems to
have opened with his coming. All the buildings have
been put in good condition, a new assembly hall has
170 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
been built, water works and bath-rooms have been
added. Other buildings are in contemplation to meet
the growing demand.
The buildings now are the original three-story brick
building; the primary department, the conservatory
of music, and the session hall form each a separate
building; and a new three-story brick building con-
nected with the main building by a hallway.
The library now contains about sixteen hundred
books, and is well supplied with magazines and papers,
and also a few late books.
The Cadmean and Clionian Literary Societies, hav-
ing for their object the promotion of literary and
ethical culture among the students, have added much
to the interest in literary research, and have stimulated
some to do original work of real merit.
The plan of instruction embraces a primary and
preparatory course of seven grades, followed by col-
lege course. College course. The course of study
is arranged according to the requirements of the
Board of Education of M. E. Church South. The
regular plan of instruction, as given in this depart-
ment, embraces ten schools, as follows:
I. School of English Including English, philol-
ogy, literature, rhetoric, old English (Anglo-Saxon)
and history. II. School of Greek Including Greek
language and literature and the history of Greece.
III. School of Latin Including Latin language and
literature and history of Rome. IV. School of Modern
Languages Including French and German languages
and literature, with history of France and Germany.
V. School of Mathematics Including pure mathe-
matics, mechanics and astronomy. VI. School of
Natural Science Including botany, physics, chemis-
try, natural history, geology, and biology. VII.
School of Philosophy Including logic, psychology,
ethics, and political economy. VIII. School of Elo-
cution Including physical training, respiration, vo-
cal culture, articulation, orthoepy, gesture, the laws of
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 171
inflection, analysis in reading, dramatic and practi-
cal reading, artistic and oratorical recitations. IX.
School of Commercial Law and Business Forms In-
cluding bookkeeping and the laws of business. X.
School of Art Including drawing, painting, wood-
carving, designing, and pottery. XL School of Mu-
sic Including vocal and instrumental music and voice
culture, science of music.
The course of Bible study is divided into four years.
The degrees conferred are A. B., B. S., A. M.,
M. E. L.
(This sketch is taken from a catalogue furnished by
President T. S. Sligh.)
172 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
The Woman's College, Frederick, Maryland,
THE Maryland Legislature granted a charter to the
Frederick Female Seminary in 1840, and gave to the
corporation full collegiate powers. The trustees were
authorized to raise $50,000 to carry out the purposes of
the charter, and the requisite amount being obtained
the first building was erected in 1843, an d the Semi-
nary was thereupon organized with the late Professor
Hiram Winchester as the first president. His ability,
energy, and scholarly excellence did much to make
the institution a success.
In the course of a few years it was found neces-
sary to erect a second building equal in dimensions
to the first. The Seminary was well patronized, and
became a powerful influence for good in this and the
The first trustees of the Frederick Female Semi-
nary were Christian Steiner, David Boyd, and Gideon
In 1893 the management of the school passed from
the original board of control to the management of
the Evangelical Reformed Church, and the name " Wo-
man's College " was adopted. In connection with the
College is a conservatory of music and art, and school
of expression. The equipment includes a library,
laboratories, gvmnasium, and infirmary.
(The data of this sketch was kindly furnished by
Miss Bertha Trail.)
Patapsco Institute, Ellicott's Mills, Maryland, 1841
" The Patapsco Female Institute is situated within
five minutes' walk of the depot of the railroad, in the
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 173
vicinity of Ellicott's Mills, Maryland, ten miles west
of Baltimore, with which, as with Washington, there
is a constant communication, both by railroads and
turnpikes. The buildings for the accommodation of
the school are of dressed granite, erected at an ex-
pense of $27,000. The adjacent grounds, consisting
of about twelve acres, belonging to the institution,
are beautifully situated, and afford many advantages
for health and recreation.
" The location of the Institute in the mountainous
region of Elk Ridge, and overlooking the Patapscc
River and surrounding country, is eminently health-
ful, and combines in a high degree the beautiful and
picturesque in scenery."
On March 4, 1852, Thomas B. Dorsey, president
of the board of trustees of the Patapsco Female In-
stitute, requested Mrs. Lincoln Phelps, principal of
Patapsco Female Institute, to submit to the board a
written statement of the mode and principles by which
its operations had been conducted, from which such
important public benefits had resulted. She responded
" In compliance with the request of the board of
trustees, the undersigned, principal of the Patapsco
Female Institute, proceeds to lay before them the
!< This Institution was organized in 1841 under the
direction of the present principal, who with six teach-
ers and twenty pupils came from her school in New
Jersey to this place, the teachers bringing with them
the system of discipline, and the pupils the habits of
study, order, and obedience which had there been
practiced and acquired. The whole number of board-
ing pupils the first term was forty-one; there was a
gradual increase of numbers up to the year 1850, when
the Institution numbered seventy boarders, which is
found to be about as many as our buildings can con-
veniently accommodate. ^
" Besides the great improvements made in the in-
174 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
terior of the building for comfort, accommodation and
embellishment, much expense has been incurred by the
principal in the erection of out-buildings, and improve-
ment of the ground belonging to the Institution. In
addition to expensive water-works, green-house, laun-
dry, and servants' house, the principal during the year
has erected at her own expense a building which affords
music, drawing, dancing, and lecture-rooms, with suit-
able private apartments for gentlemen connected with
the Institution, as professors, or other officers. Many
thousand loads of stone have been carried off the
grounds, which are now under high cultivation, and
ornamented with a rich variety of shrubbery and other
exotic plants and trees. It is estimated that in ad-
dition to the expenditure above named, more than
$20,000 have been expended by the principal in musi-
cal instruments, scientific apparatus, furniture, etc.,
for the use of the Institution. Such is a brief outline
of what has been accomplished in respect to render-
ing this place better fitted and furnished for the pur-
poses of a Female Collegiate Institute.
" The organization of the Institution is as follows :
A principal, vice-principal, chaplain, eight lady teachers
associated in the care and discipline of the pupils, and
teachers of common English branches, mathematics,
Latin, belles-lettres, natural sciences, music, drawing,
etc. ; a French governess, four professors of music and
drawing, two domestic superintendents, a matron, and
secretary, or business-agent. Besides these regular
and constant teachers and officers, other persons are
occasionally employed, as professors of dancing, elo-
cution, lecturers on physical sciences, etc.
" The number of graduates of the Institute is found
to be 122. The course of studies here pursued, as
respects literary and scientific branches, is not less
extensive than that of the first colleges in the coun-
try, and scarcely less so in the higher branches of the
pure and mixed mathematics; in Latin, though fewer
books are prescribed, our course is thorough and ex-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 175
tensive; and for the acquisition of modern languages
and accomplishments great advantages are enjoyed.
Teaching is, here, thorough and practical, founded
upon the principles of the philosophy of the mind as
learned by observation and experience ; and the highest
principles of morality are combined with the sanction
of the Christian religion, without bigotry on the one
hand, or fanaticism on the other. To cultivate, to
the highest degree, the mind, and elevate the characters
of the future women of our country, is the object of
" It is, furthermore, our aim and object to do all
we can in influencing the minds of our pupils, to stem
the torrent of foreign licentiousness which is in danger
of inundating our country; to teach that fashion and
pleasure should never be allowed to take precedence
of morality and duty; that woman's mission is a high
and holy one, which she, as an immortal being, is
bound to perform in short, to render our pupils earn-
est and sincere lovers of truth and virtue, and to in-
spire them with abhorrence of vice, under whatever
form of allurement it may approach."
After setting forth in glowing terms the aims and
objects of the Institution, and what she, Mrs. Phelps,
had done to attain the ideal, Mrs. Phelps discusses
the question which gave rise to the report the with-
drawal of the annual appropriation by the Legislature
to the support of this school. She says :
" Without the fostering care of the State, this In-
stitution must have been a failure as to the great and
important objects for which it was designed, and which
it has now attained. By the liberality of the trustees
in offering the use of the property on favorable terms,
the principal was induced to undertake the formidable
task of building up an Institution, where, hitherto,
after several attempts, little had been accomplished;
rendering thereby difficulties greater than if a pre-
vious character of mediocrity had not been stamped
upon the school; a disadvantage which even at this
176 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
day, by development of circumstances, sometimes be-
Though Mrs. Phelps says at the outset that the
school began in 1841, under her management, in this
last paragraph she admits it had been in operation
some time before she took charge; and in another
paragraph she says, " It is said that when the Institute
building was erected it was designed to accommodate
one hundred or more pupils."
The beginning of this school is really unknown,
but tradition says it was in existence ten or more years
before Mrs. Phelps took charge in 1841 ; the records,
if they ever existed, must have been destroyed when
the change was made, as nothing but traditions of it
The normal, or teachers' class, was a pet scheme of
Mrs. Phelps, and much exploited by her. It was not,
however, a training class for any and all who might
wish to prepare for teaching, but a class of young
women who wished to teach, but who did not have
the means to defray the necessary expense of the
training. These young women usually paid their
board by work in the domestic department of the In-
stitution, and made a written contract to refund the
amount of tuition and clothes, if these were furnished,
but this seldom was the case, with interest. These
young women seldom failed to meet their obligations in
full. Occasionally some one failed to pay the whole
amount, and sometimes payment was long delayed, but
according to Mrs. Phelps's own statement this very sel-
dom happened, and a very small amount of indebted-
ness was lost by her.
Mrs. Phelps boasted much of her system of dis-
cipline, which was the " curatress system " ; that is,
the school was divided into sections of from six to
ten pupils; each section was under the supervision of
a teacher called a " curatress." Once a month each
" curatress " made a written report to the principal,
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 177
which was read before the whole school, " of the kind
and quantity of work performed, with the general de-
portment, industry, etc., of the pupils under her
The " monitorial " system was fully carried out.
Each pupil " was in turn a subordinate officer " ; that
is, each pupil was required to be a spy and informer.
These monitors reported weekly to the officers and
teachers the conduct and deportment of each individual
pupil, and these reports were read before the assembled
The principal of this institution from 1841 to 1856
was Mrs. Lincoln Phelps, known to the public as
the author of Lincoln's Botany, of a series of works
on chemistry, natural philosophy, and sundry works
on the subject of education.
Mr. Phelps, who had been the " power behind the
throne," died in April, 1849. Mrs. Phelps retired
from control in 1856, and was succeeded by Mr. Rob-
ert H. Archer, who continued in charge until 1879 or
1880. However, during the War between the States
the school was closed, as its patronage was entirely
from the Southern States. Mr. Archer was succeeded
by Miss Sarah Randolph, who continued the school
until 1896, when it had decreased in numbers so much
it was deemed unwise to continue any longer, and the
trustees sold the property to parties for a summer
The principal reason for its decline was, as local
institutions improved, boarding-schools became less and
less in demand, and the local patronage was not suf-
ficient to sustain it profitably.
From the establishment (about 1831) this school
was an incorporated school and had the right to grant
diplomas. These were granted for a full course in
English and proficiency in one foreign language.
The school sessions were of long duration in those
days. The annual opening was on the first of October,
178 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
the annual commencement occurred on the first Wed-
nesday in August, thus leaving only eight weeks for
During Mrs. Phelps's regime the text books
Preparatory Department Greenleafs Grammar:
Emerson's Arithmetic, 2d part; Willard's Geography
for Beginners; Woodbridge and Willard's Rudiments
of Geography; Willard's Abridgment of American
History and Historic Guide ; Phelps's Chemistry, Bot-
any, Geology and Natural Philosophy for Beginners.
Junior Year Kirkman's Grammar; Emerson's
Arithmetic, 2d part; Willard and Woodbridge's Uni-
versal Geography; Willard's Ancient Geography;
Dillaway's Roman Antiquities; Phelps's Larger Nat-
ural Philosophy and Chemistry ; Willard's Republic of
America and Universal History; Newman's Rhetoric;
Middle Year Kirkman's Grammar; Emerson's
Arithmetic, 3d part; Totten's Algebra; Davies' Alge-
bra; Davies' Legendre's Geometry; Willard's Univer-
sal History, Chronographer and Historic Guide ; Bur-
ritt's Geography of the Heavens; Lincoln's Botany;
Phelps's Chemistry ; Hedge's Logic ; Legal Classic by
Hon. J. Phelps; Campbell's Philosophy of Rhetoric,
or Kames' Elements of Criticism.
Senior Year Marsh's Book-keeping; Olmstead's
Mechanics ; Trigonometry ; Lee's Physiology ; Willard
on the Circulation of the Blood; Lincoln's Botany;
Phelps's Chemistry; Wayland's Elements of Moral
Science ; Brown's Intellectual Philosophy ; Paley's Evi-
dences of Christianity ; Paley's Natural Theology.
French, Latin, Italian, and German were the lan-
guages taught. All the pupils were required to at-
tend lectures on botany, chemistry, natural philosophy,
history, and geology.
This list shows that half the text-books used were
written by Mr. and Mrs. Phelps and her sister, Mrs.
Willard of Troy Seminary. As none of these books
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 179
sold for less than $1.50 and most of them for $2.00
and $3.00, this was an important item in connection
with the school and netted a handsome income.
Much space has been given to this school, because at
one time it was very popular in all the Southern States,
and many of its text-books may still be found scat-
tered through the country, regarded as relics of a happy
past by a few who still survive, and investigated as cu-
riosities by a younger generation accustomed to a very
different style of text-book. Perhaps some of the old
diplomas may still be in existence, cherished as me-
mentoes of the past or regarded as curios.
After Mrs. Phelps's resignation, the text-books, the
discipline, and the whole regime of the school were
changed to suit modern ideas Southern ideas. Mrs.
Phelps boasted that she made Patapsco, " a Northern
school in all essential features and characteristics,"
and some time before she retired her patrons were
tired of her system.
(Mrs. Mackubin, an alumna of Patapsco, kindly
furnished the catalogue, Mrs. Phelps's report, and gave
some additional facts, from which this sketch has been
Kee Mar College, Hagerstown, Maryland, 1851-1908
Upon an eminence commanding a view of the entire
Cumberland Valley is located Kee Mar College. From
its porches may be seen the Blue Ridge, Crampton's
Gap, and South Mountain. The surrounding country
is rich in historical association, and famed for its
healthfulness, and the beauty of its scenery.
The buildings comprise a main college building, a
music hall, and a large auditorium. These are all
heated by steam and lighted by gas and electricity,
and the sanitary arrangements are complete as science
can make them. The campus contains ten acres,
adorned with shrubbery and evergreens, and shaded
by maples and choice trees of many varieties. The
180 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
greatest care is taken to promote the health of the
students, and careful attention is given to physical
culture and gymnasium work.
However important physical development is or may
be, it is at best only the beginning of education. In-
tellectual training naturally follows, and the means
which college life affords for development in this di-
rection are practically three : the faculty, including all
lectures and means of instruction in general; student
organization and publications which foster the acquire-
ment of knowledge ; and libraries and other apparatus
which are of assistance in illustrating the facts and
truths taught in the class-room.
Kee Mar has spared no pains to secure the very best
faculty. Some of its members have national reputa-
tions, one an international reputation, on the platform.
A close relation with the American Society for Exten-
sion of University Teaching is sustained ; one member
of its staff is an affiliated teacher.
Two courses of university extension lectures were
given during the year 1905-^06 and other lectures were
Two literary organizations The Society of Elaine
and The Society of Antigone help the students to
put in practice the knowledge gained in the school-
The separate departments of the College have spe-
cial libraries of well-selected books, adapted to their
special work, and the reading-room is well supplied
with reference books and works of general interest.
The large and excellent library of the city of Hagers-
town is always available for the use of the students;
altogether, about 30,000 volumes are at their command
Painting is taught as an allied department of the
institution, and history of art is studied as an im-
portant feature of the curriculum. A splendid col-
lection of art reproductions brought from Italy add
interest to the work. A series of over thirty reproduc-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 181
tions of the Sistine frescoes of the Vatican, made
under the supervision of John Ruskin, which is prob-
ably unique of its kind in America, is available for the
use of students; while a large collection of similar
reproductions of drawings of the great masters, chiefly
Leonardo, Angelo, and Raphael, is also in the posses-
sion of the College.
Music has always received careful attention in this
College. The faculty is composed of teachers who
have received training from the best schools in this
country and the best conservatories of Europe. Much
attention is given to voice culture.
The Margaret Barry School of Expression, founder!
by one of the best readers in America, and under her
personal direction, affords an excellent opportunity
for development of aesthetic culture.
The capstone of the arch of education is character.
Intellectual training without proper moral balance can
only produce dangerous rather than useful members
of society, and the same is true of aesthetic culture.
A college that does not insist upon the absolute and
supreme worth of the moral life is an institution which
may do great harm, and which cannot accomplish
great good. Therefore, high ideals are constantly
kept before the minds of the pupils, and chapel services
are held every day during the week, and students are
expected to attend the church to which they belong or
which their parents select, on Sunday. Vesper services
conducted by ministers of different denominations are
held in the college every Sunday.
Social life is scarcely less important than intellectual
training; therefore, formal receptions are held during
the school term, and the laws of polite society observed
at all times.
The curriculum embraces the departments of philos-
ophy, English, Latin language and literature, Greek
language and literature, history, mathematics, German
language and literature, French language and litera-
ture, and natural science.
182 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
The degrees conferred are A. B. and A. M. ; diplo-
mas are conferred for literary course, music and art.
The President of Kee Mar is Bruce Lesher Kersh-
This school has had a continuous and progressive
career since its organization in 1851, and has adapted
its equipment, its standard, and its curriculum to the
demand of the educational ideals of the present
The college seal is a reproduction of an intaglio
found among the ruins of Pompeii. The original in-
taglio has been in the British Museum, has belonged
to a king of Saxony, and is at present in the possession
of Miss Margaret Barry.
Much space has been given to this school, because
so few schools of Maryland could be put on record,
though this is by no means the oldest school in Mary-
(The information on which this sketch is based was
obtained from catalogues sent by the president.)
Maryland College, Lutherville, Maryland, 1853-1908
Maryland College for Women was chartered in
1853 by the Legislature of Maryland. In 1895 a new
charter was granted, enabling the institution to confer
the usual collegiate and honorary degrees on women
of merit and distinction in literature and science. It
is located at Lutherville, a beautiful village suburban
to Baltimore, Maryland, on the Northern Central Rail-
way, in a high, healthy, and beautiful section of coun-
The main college building is of stone in a castellated
style of architecture, presenting a front of 126 feet,
and a depth of 68 feet, surmounted by a cupola, which
affords an extensive view of the surrounding country.
The campus is extensive and retired, occupying eleven
acres. The grounds in the rear are covered with a
forest of native oaks ; in front they are laid out in
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 183
walks and promenades, planted in ornamental shrub-
bery and shade trees.
The Institution is provided with pianos, organs,
chemical and philosophical apparatus, maps and charts,
and a cabinet of minerals, sufficient for the practical
illustration of the sciences.
Baltimore is only a few minutes' ride by rail from
Lutherville, and this center of wealth and culture at-
tracts the finest talent from all parts of the world, thus
the best in art and music is accessible to the pupils.
They have opportunities to hear great dramas, ora-
torios, operas, symphonies, and lectures, by noted art-
ists. The Peabody Art Gallery is open all the year
round, and the private art collection of Mr. Walter
Walters is open six months each year. These galleries
afford opportunities of surpassing excellence to lovers
The College has a library of standard authors, and
a reading-room furnished with choice periodicals and
scientific and religious journals, magazines, and news-
The Morris and Lyceum Literary Societies afford
opportunity and stimulus for the cultivation of habits
of reading and discussion, and literary taste. The
Current Comment Club meets weekly for recital and
discussion of current events.
Collegiate Department This department embraces
three separate and distinct schools : The English, Latin,
Classical (or Scientific) and Greek Classical, each cov-
ering a period of four years. The Greek and Latin
classical courses each require one modern language;
the English course requires two modern languages.
Pupils may become candidates for graduation in either
of them. The completion of either of them, upon
satisfactory examination, will entitle the applicant to
a diploma in that school. The Greek course leads to
the degree of B. A. ; the Latin course to B. S. ; the
English course to B. L. Bachelor of Literature. The
honorary degree of M. A. will be conferred on such
184 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
persons as may be recommended by the faculty and
approved by the board of control. A diploma, with
the title Graduate of Music of Maryland College for
Women, will be awarded to those who finish the
course of music prescribed by the institution to the
entire satisfaction of the faculty.
The Department of Art offers two courses: i. A
thorough course for those who expect to pursue art
as a profession; 2. A course for those who can give
but little time to the study of art, but who desire some
knowledge of it for home decoration. All the branches
of art taught in colleges receive attention.
Preparatory Department In order to provide for
those pupils who are unprepared to enter the regular
college classes, a sub-freshman class is conducted by the
regular faculty of instructors, offering the advantage of
preparing for and completing the collegiate course
under the same direction.
(This sketch is taken from catalogues sent by the
president of the College, Rev. J. M. Turner.)
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 185
Franklin Academy, Columbus, Mississippi, 1821-1908
THIS school, though not strictly a school for girls,
should be mentioned, because from its establishment in
1821 there were two entirely distinct schools one for
boys and one for girls.
It was a " sixteenth-section " school, and still has
an income from its sixteenth-section lands. This
school has been the subject of much legislation and
much discussion, and its management has been much
opposed and criticised. At one time great opposition
arose against the " high school department." It was
contended that the children of the poor could not at-
tend school longer than was necessary to complete the
grammar-school studies, therefore, the money should
not be used to maintain a school for the benefit of
the rich, who should maintain a school for their own
children. To meet this objection, a small fee was
charged for each of the higher classes. Still the dis-
satisfaction continued, and it was proposed to close the
school and distribute the funds among private schools
of primary grade. This proposition was submitted to
a vote of the citizens. Two tickets " School," the
other " No School " were presented ; the school ticket
was elected, and the school continued its course.
Fortunately, the city of Columbus was built on about
two-thirds of its school lands. This gave it an in-
creasing income, but even then this amount was not
sufficient for all expenses, and the manner of supple-
menting this fund was a bone of contention until
the Academy became a part of the State School system
in 1869. Since that time it has had its pro rata of the
State fund, and its own sixteenth-section fund.
186 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
In 1875 or 1876 the trustees of this school bought
the " Freedmen's Bureau " building and established a
school for negro children under the management of
the Franklin Academy.
The school has never been closed since it was char-
tered in 1821 until the present time. It has continued
its session nine months in every year, being three
months more than required by law. The establishment
of this school on the old " Military Road," that Gen-
eral Jackson had opened through the wilderness, at-
tracted settlers, a land office was opened, and soon the
town of Columbus was a thriving, busy mart. The
community was noted for its intelligence and high-
toned morality, and has maintained these characteris-
tics until the present time.
Mississippi College, Clinton, Mississippi, 1830-1850
Hampstead Academy was incorporated in 1826, and
located at Mount Salus, now Clinton, in Hinds County.
F. A. Hopkins was first principal of the school, which
began active work in January, 1827. On the fifth of
February, the same year, an Act of Legislature was
passed by which the name of the institution was
changed to Mississippi Academy, and to this institution
was donated, for a term of five years, the rent of such
portions of thirty-six sections of land granted by Con-
gress in 1819, for the aid of an institution of learning,
as had been leased.
In April, 1827, the trustees published this announce-
ment : " The school has been in operation three months,
and now numbers upwards of thirty students; both
boys and girls are admitted, but the house is so con-
structed that the boys and girls are taught in separate
rooms. The entire building will probably be com-
pleted this year, and when finished will accommodate
from 150 to 200 students." An amendment to the
charter, by which the name and grade of the school
were changed to Mississippi College, was approved in
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 187
December, 1830. However, the implication of the
name did not exist; it was never adopted as a State
institution, but was under a board of management
nominated by the citizens of Clinton.
The Constitutional Flag published an account of a
commencement in June, 1832, which gives us a glimpse
of an old time commencement.
" Male Department : The examination of the pupils
of this institution closed on Friday, the i^th inst. On
Monday (forenoon), Thursday, and Friday the stu-
dents of this department were rigidly examined in
various studies. The young gentlemen in the classes
distinguished themselves in a manner highly creditable ;
such was the spirit of emulation among them that it
would be difficult to distinguish any one in particular.
The oratorical society exhibited on Thursday and Tues-
day nights. This society elicited most unbounded ap-
plause, and promises a high degree of usefulness, and
to become a valuable auxiliary in the school. The
composition (original) was elegant and the elocution
" Female Department : This department is divided
into four classes, and the studies of each class pre-
scribed. The first class is distinguished by a red badge,
the second by a pink badge, the third class, by a blue
badge, and the fourth by a white badge.
" On Monday forenoon those studying music were
examined ; and it would be ungenerous to withhold the
mead of praise ; their performance met the admiration
of a large and respectable audience. On Tuesday and
Wednesday the young ladies were examined in classes.
Each class, stimulated by a laudable emulation to ex-
cel, afforded a triumphant refutation of their supposed
incapacity of high scientific attainments.
" On Wednesday morning two young ladies were
graduated. The ceremony of graduating and con-
188 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
ferring the degrees was truly imposing, and excited
the most lively interest. After the conferring of the
degrees, the young ladies were presented with a gold
medal with a suitable inscription, and a diploma."
The buildings having been completed, in 1834 the
institution was organized in two departments, entirely
separate from each other, and each had its own
In 1842 the school was placed under the control of
the Clinton Presbytery, and both departments were
placed under the same president, though still separate.
In 1848 the girls' department was again placed under
separate management; and Dr. Newton, an educator
of large experience, was president of this department.
He was assisted by Prof. John P. Mapes and Miss
Eliza Warren, who had been educated in Europe.
She was a linguist and musician, and had had much
experience in teaching.
The school continued to prosper until 1848, when
Rev. P. Cotton, president of the College, resigned.
The affairs of the College began to decline, and in
1850 the buildings, grounds, and apparatus of the
College became the property of the Baptist State Con-
vention. After this transfer the girls' department was
(This sketch is taken from " History of Education
in Mississippi," by Hon. Edward Mayes.)
Holly Springs Female Institute, 1836
From its earliest day the educational advantages of
the city of Holly Springs were of a high order. This
was especially true in regard to schools for girls. They
extended unusual facilities for learning, under the
guidance of enlightened and experienced teachers.
These benefits attracted the residence of families of
wealth and refinement, who came from a distance to
secure the education of their children. They brought
with them a high standard of religious, moral, and
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 189
intellectual culture, and gave unusual elevation to the
society of the place. This was so eminently the case
that in a very short time the population was over 4,000,
and its real estate was in demand at high prices.
In January, 1836 (the same year in which the
Chickasaw Cession was organized into counties), a
meeting of the citizens of Holly Springs and its vi-
cinity was held for the purpose of electing trustees
for the " Female Academy " of Holly Springs. At
this meeting a Miss Mosely was employed to teach dur-
ing the first session, with the rates of tuition fixed at
$8, $12, and $15, for the first, second, and third
classes, respectively. The building was south of the
road to Hernando, and fronting it. It was a modest
but comfortable structure of hewn logs, with clapboard
roof, overhung by friendly oak trees.
A Mr. Cottrell and his wife were elected to take
charge of the school, and agreed to open their session
the ist of January, 1837, but for some reason failed
to do so, and opened a school near Hudsonville in the
same county. A Mr. Baker and his wife were in-
stalled as principals for 1837. The school seems to
have prospered so much that the trustees determined
to provide larger and more comfortable accommoda-
During this year the town of Holly Springs was
incorporated. The owners of the land on which it
was located donated fifty acres to the city, and this
tract sold for enough money to build an excellent
court-house and jail and furnish means towards the
enlargement and improvement of the academy. The
sum of $10,500 was appropriated to the last purpose
by the police court, and private subscriptions increased
the sum to $14,121.59.
About this time an unsuccessful effort was made to
engage a Mr. Hollister as principal. Deeming it im-
portant to have at the head of the institution " a gen-
tleman of literary abilities and one who has practical
experience in conducting a female school/' the ses-
190 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
sion of 1838 was postponed until February, and mean-
while Colonel Henderson was dispatched on the special
mission of finding an acceptable man. The result
was, Mr. Thomas Johnson was selected.
Notwithstanding the financial calamities of the
period, there was prosperity throughout this commu-
nity. The frictions and disorders incident to new
settlements yielded so promptly to the power of a re-
fined and cultured element that they seemed hardly to
The trustees resolved to readjust their plans; it
was determined to move the academy to a more desir-
able site. On the Qth of April, 1838, the special com-
mittee reported the purchase of a lot of four acres
from Mr. W. S. Randolph. A committee was ap-
pointed to make contracts and superintend the work.
It was further resolved to lay the corner-stone on
the 24th of June with Masonic honors, and Holly
Springs Lodge, No. 35, was invited to perform the
ceremony. This program was duly carried out, and
the academy (now called Holly Springs Collegiate
Institute) was established on grounds amply capa-
cious and beautifully located amidst residences well
improved, and even in some instances ambitious in
style. The grounds were laid off and shade trees
planted. Dr. William Hankins testified his interest
in the enterprise by the gift of an " elegant electrical
In 1838 there were about eighty pupils. The musi-
cal department was under the care of Mr. and Mrs.
Kenno, and was well conducted.
The institution embraced a primary and a colle-
giate department. The primary were taught orthog-
raphy, reading, writing, English grammar, geography,
history, and arithmetic. The collegiate department
was divided into three classes junior, intermediate,
and senior and the studies were arranged in this
Junior Class Elocution, English, Latin or some
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 191
modern language, natural philosophy, chemistry, his-
tory, arithmetic, composition, vocal music.
Intermediate Class English, rhetoric, Latin or
some modern language, physiology, outlines of geol-
ogy, mineralogy, botany, natural history, algebra, vo-
Senior Class English, Latin or some modern lan-
guage, optics, astronomy, natural theology, mental and
moral philosophy, criticism, logic, geometry, composing
The Institute was then provided with five teachers
in the collegiate department, including the president
and two teachers for art and music. There was a
sufficient additional force for the primary department.
The trustees paid no salaries, the principal and as-
sistants depending entirely upon tuition fees.
In the Republican of January 12, 1839, President
Johnson published an open letter to the public urging
the claims of the Institute. It contains a good presen-
tation of the advantages of a high education, a fine
insistence on the desirability of a home education
rather than a foreign one, and it has this passage of
" The people of Holly Springs have given such evi-
dence of their convictions on the subject of education
that we think the public may rely upon their establish-
ing schools of such a caste as to meet their views, how-
ever elevated. They have raised by subscription $30,-
ooo to erect and endow a college for young gentle-
men, and have already commenced improvements upon
a liberal scale for its accommodations, part of which
is already prepared ; the balance is in progress. This
college is now furnished with a faculty that would
do honor to any school.
1 They have appropriated $15,000 to erecting and
endowing a high order of female school, the principal
edifice of which is now in progress and will be finished
early next spring. This edifice is of the Tuscan order,
64 feet front, two tall stories upon a basement, with a
192 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
wing extending back 60 feet. When completed it
will be one of the best buildings for the purpose in the
Southwest, sufficiently large to accommodate the
teacher's family, 140 pupils, and 60 boarders.
" Our object is to impart a sound, substantial, lib-
eral education, not masculine, but approximating as
near to it as the peculiarities of the female intellect
The Institute was granted a charter in 1839, and
in May of that year Mr. Johnson severed his con-
nection with the school, and was succeeded by Rev.
C. Parish, A. M., who remained until 1842. The
faculty during the latter part of 1839 was composed
of Rev. C. Parish, A. M., president and professor of
natural science, mathematics, languages, and belles-
lettres; Miss Ruth Beach, assistant teacher; Rufus
Beach, Esq., and daughter, Eliza, teachers of music;
Mrs. E. Langley, teacher of ornamental branches.
The students registered January, 1840, were 80 in
During the summer of 1841 a Mr. Foster set up a
rival school, and for some months there was a con-
tention which school was the true Holly Springs In-
stitute; at last, in January, 1842, Rev. C. Parish re-
signed, and was succeeded by Mr. Foster. The board
accepted the resignation with reluctance, and passed
very complimentary resolutions on that occasion. Dur-
ing Mr. Parish's incumbency he graduated several
young ladies with the degree of M. P. L. possibly
these letters stand for " Mistress of Polite Literature."
Mr. Foster leased the institute for five and one-half
years. A fine cabinet of minerals was provided, and
a good philosophical apparatus, also a library; and
part of the grounds was laid out in a botanical gar-
den. Mr. Foster was remarkably successful for a
An account of the closing exercises of the session
of 1844 ma y be found in the Holly Springs Gazette
of that date : " On the Thursday, Friday, and Satur-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 19S
day of the last week in December, 1844, there was a
public examination; the pupils gave numerous experi-
ments and illustrations in practical chemistry; they
conversed publicly in French, and read compositions
in that tongue ; they were quizzed in mental philosophy,
in geometry, and in geology; they gave a public con-
cert, which was creditable to pupils and teachers. In
all they acquitted themselves with great credit."
Mr. Foster was succeeded by Rev. James Weatherby,
who was quite prosperous for two years, and was
succeeded by Rev. G. W. Sill, who remained ten years,
and was prosperous from the first of his administra-
tion ; indeed, the school was at its best during his ad-
ministration. It had tided over the financial crisis of
1837-40, the buildings were completed, and the pur-
poses of the trustees were crowned with success. This
board of trustees counted among its members some of
the most intelligent and influential gentlemen in the
The Institute was destroyed by the War between
the States, and never rebuilt, but its work remains; it
contributed largely to the development of a high order
of Culture in the community, and to the establishment
of other fine schools, its natural and direct successors.
Sharon Female College, Madison County, Mississippi,
This institution, located at Sharon, in Madison
County, was founded by B. W. Minter, J. W. P. Mc-
Gimsey, E. F. Divine, Kinsman Divine, William
Joiner, and James M. Baker, with others. The scheme
was to have a union school, under the direction of the
Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians ; each of these
denominations was represented on the board of trus-
tees and the faculty. The institution was incorporated
in 1837. The plan of organization was a college for
men and an academy for girls. These were distinct
establishments and faculties under one president. As
194 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
had been anticipated, this union did not last long,
about six years, when the school for girls was placed
in the hands of the Methodist Church. It was reor-
ganized, obtained a new charter, and began an era of
prosperity under the name of Sharon Female College.
The following extracts from an advertisement of the
date September 6, 1843, w ^^ show something of its
" SHARON FEMALE COLLEGE, MADISON COUNTY,
" This institution, under the patronage of the Mis-
sissippi Annual Conference, will commence its regular
session on the first Monday of October.
" Board of Instruction Rev. E. S. Robinson, A. M.,
principal and teacher of ancient languages, mathe-
matics, and natural sciences; C. W. F. Muller, Esq.,
(a native of France, and a gentleman of thorough edu-
cation), professor of music and modern languages;
Mrs. J. A. Robinson, chief governess and teacher of
botany, history, and ornamental needlework ; name not
given, second governess, and teacher of drawing, paint-
ing, and vocal music. A preceptress of the prepara-
tory department will be selected by October ist.
" Course of study : Preparatory department Or-
thography, reading, writing, English grammar, geog-
raphy, arithmetic, mythology, progressive exercises
in composition, Bible and its natural history, Latin
and Greek grammars, Latin tutors and readers, and
vocal music. Collegiate department Ancient and
modern languages, algebra, geometry, trigonometry,
mensuration, syntax and English composition, analy-
sis, rhetoric, natural philosophy, chemistry, geology,
mineralogy, botany, astronomy, logic, elements of criti-
cism, ancient and modern history, ancient geography,
philosophy of natural history, physiology, mental and
moral sciences, introduction to the study of the Bible,
evidences of Christianity, daily use of sacred Scrip-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 195
tures, music, drawing, painting, wax, coral, and orna-
" The last examination closed the first semi-annual
session of its existence under the patronage of the
Mississippi Annual Conference. Its success has equaled
the highest expectations of its trustees and patrons,
having closed with more than 80 students, and the
prospect of large accessions at the opening of the
" J. P. THOMAS,
"President Board of Trustees."
In 1845 Mr- Robinson was succeeded by Rev. Pleas-
ant J. Eckles; in 1854 Rev. J. W. Shelton was elected;
he resigned after a few months and was succeeded
by Rev. Mr. Guard, who remained until 1861, when
he was followed by Rev. William L. C. Hunnicut.
Mr. Hunnicut very soon enlisted as a chaplain in the
Confederate Army, and Rev. Samuel Aikin took his
place in the College ; in 1867 he resigned, and Mr. Hun-
nicut was re-elected and served until 1869, when he
was succeeded by Rev. Josiah M. Pugh. President
Pugh resigned in July, 1870, on account of ill health,
and Mr. Hunnicut was elected for the third time.
He served one year and was succeeded by Mr.
In 1868 the boarding-house was destroyed by 'fire,
and this calamity eventually led to the closing of the
College. In 1872, under President Pugh, the last
graduating class of Sharon College received their de-
grees. They were Mattie E. Holliday, Mary J.
O'Leary, and Emma M. Wiggins. The last named
was valedictorian. The commencement that year was
said to be the most brilliant in the history of the
institution. But it was the last. In July of that year
President Pugh resigned to take the presidency of
Marvin College, Texas, and was succeeded by Rev.
Mr. Moss of Alabama.
At the close of the year 1873 the College closed its
196 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
career. The suspension was due to the destruction of
property during the war and by the war, the general
upheaval of society, the destruction of the boarding-
house, and removals of many families and other con-
ditions that could not be changed.
(This sketch is taken from " History of Education
in Mississippi," by Hon. Edward Mayes.)
Oxford Academy Union College Woman's College,
Oxford, Mississippi, 1836-1908
Scarcely had the Indians been expelled from their
ancestral hunting grounds when the Mississippians be-
gan to establish schools. Only two years after the
Chickasaws slowly and sadly wended their way to the
far West, the Methodists of the little town of Ox-
ford established a school for girls. In 1838 this school
was incorporated under the name of Oxford Female
Academy, and placed under the control of a regular
board of trustees.
Miss Charlotte Paine was the first principal, and
was remarkably successful in the management of the
school. Her first session closed December, 1839, with
an enrollment of thirty-four. Three years later the
music department gave an exhibition recital in the
court-house of Oxford. Though the numbers were
simple, the pupils must have applied themselves dili-
gently to be able to render them in the creditable man-
ner they did. The style of music preferred in that
day was simple melody rather than the class that calls
for showy execution finger gymnastics or the purely
Under the management of several principals the
school was a decided success; but its friends and pa-
trons desired something better a higher standard;
and as at that time the impression prevailed that a de-
nominational connection was the only sure road to a
great career, the school was placed under the control
of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. In 1854 a
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 197
new charter was obtained and the name changed to
While the College is under the management of the
Cumberland Presbyterian Church, no sectarian test
is made in the selection of teachers, and it is patron-
ized by all denominations, and is conducted on a
When organized as an academy there were three
departments literary, musical and art. The literary
was divided into primary, middle and advanced. The
following was the course of study for the advanced
department : " Comstock's Natural Philosophy, Corn-
stock's Chemistry; Lincoln's Botany; Playfair's Eu-
clid ; Day's Algebra ; Newman's Rhetoric ; Alexander's
Evidences; Goodrich's Ecclesiastical History: history
of England; history of France; Abercrombie's intel-
lectual Powers ; Abercrombie's Moral Feelings ; Watts
on the Mind; Burritt's Geography of the Heavens;
logic; Roman and Grecian antiquities; political econ-
omy ; composition." The literary course of Union Col-
lege embraces a preparatory and a collegiate depart-
ment. The latter requires the usual four years. The
College offers a short course of two years to those
who have not time to take the full course. There is
also a school of fine arts and a school of vocal and
The College is unendowed, and is dependent upon
tuition fees for its support; these range from $20 to
$50 for day pupils, per annum. Music, art, and French
are extras. The average attendance is 1 50 pupils. The
first class graduated under the charter of 1854 num-
bered six, and was graduated in 1856. The War of
1861-65, caused a suspension of five years, but with
that exception the school has had a continuous ex-
istence from 1836 to the present time, and has sent
out hundreds of young women to disseminate the
truths of Christianity and morality.
The original building presented much the appear-
ance of a dwelling-house. It was a two-story brick
198 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
structure arranged for schoolrooms and music-rooms;
the boarders were accommodated in private families.
The Academy was furnished with a complete philo-
sophical, chemical, and astronomical apparatus, globes,
and a small library. When the Academy was enlarged
or advanced to a college, a three-story brick building
was erected, and the " old academy " was connected
with it by a corridor. These buildings were valued
at $50,000 and there was no debt on them. In 1896
another three-story brick building was added, at a
cost of $15,000.
The College added a much larger and more modern
chemical and philosophical apparatus, and enlarged the
The campus of 10 acres, shaded by several hundred
native trees, affords ample ground for exercise and
In 1899 some prominent ministers and members of
the North Mississippi Conference of the M. E. Church
South, recognizing the great value of the plant and
the favorable location for a college for women, as
well as the great need of such an institution within the
bounds of the Conference, negotiated with the owners
and purchased the entire plant.
This school enjoys the distinction of being the old-
est chartered school for girls in the State that has had
a continuous existence. All those established at an
earlier date have passed out of existence. It is now a
modern college and conservatory.
Port Gibson Female College, Port Gibson, Mississippi,
The town of Port Gibson is located on the Louisville,
New Orleans, and Texas Railway. It is one of the
oldest towns in the State, and at a very early period
in its history began the establishment of schools. In
1809 the Territorial Legislature chartered the Madi-
son Academy, then in successful operation under the
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 199
care of Henry C. Cox. This academy had a success-
ful career for many years. In 1826 Clinton Academy
was incorporated, and in 1829 its name was changed to
Port Gibson Academy, which was more or less success-
ful until about 1843. ^ n tnat Y ear a number of gentle-
men established Port Gibson Collegiate Academy.
This institution was opened for the reception of stu-
dents in 1844. The first faculty was Mr. John Har-
vie, A.M., principal; Mrs. Mary A. Harvie, his wife;
Mr. W. L. Whitney, A.M., Miss Mary J. Smyth,
Miss Marcia Howe, assistants, and Mr. L. G. Hartge,
professor of music.
Provision was made for teaching the usual college
curriculum, modern languages and music. An exten-
sive apparatus for teaching natural philosophy and
chemistry was supplied.
The building and one block of ground were donated
by the founder: these were valued at $15,000. The
management of Mr. Harvie was successful; his term
of service continued from 1844 to 1859.
This institution did not receive its charter until
1854, when it was chartered under the name of Port
Gibson Female Collegiate Academy.
In 1859 Rev. Benjamin Jones, a minister of the M.
E. Church South, was president. How long he re-
tained the position the record does not say, but he was
president again in 1871. It is not stated whether he
retained this position until 1875, when Rev. John A. B.
Jones was elected. Mr. Jones served seven years, and
was succeeded by Rev. Thomas C. Bradford, who
served six years and was succeeded by Rev. Edwin H.
Mounger, in 1888, who still retains the position.
In 1869 the College was taken under the patronage
of the Mississippi Conference of the Methodist Epis-
copal Church South, and the property duly conveyed
to that body.
This college was exempt from doing pioneer work,
for the way had been prepared for it by the fine
schools mentioned at the beginning of this article.
200 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
From the first it was successful ; even the turmoils and
disasters of the War of 1861-65 did not cause a sus-
pension of exercises. As the academies mentioned
were merged into it, its existence may be dated from
1809, and certainly some years earlier, perhaps from
the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Several buildings have been added to the original
Academy, and the property is now valued at $20,000.
The degrees conferred are M. E. L. (Mistress of
English Literature), B. A., M. A.
Grenada Collegiate Institute, Grenada, Mississippi,
This institution had many vicissitudes and changes
of name before it arrived at its present status and
In 1851, before Grenada was in existence, the Yalo-
busha Baptist Association was an active denomina-
tional organization, whose circle included all of Yalo-
busha and parts of Carroll and Choctaw counties. That
association founded a school of high grade, under the
name of The Yalobusha Baptist Female Institute. For
its accommodation they erected the present edifice, at
a cost of $30,000. The money obtained came from
voluntary and varying contributions. Dr. W. S. Webb,
who was teaching school in what is now Grenada,
was elected president; he accepted and moved his
school into the building, September, 1851. He was
very successful, and continued for six years, command-
ing a large patronage from the surrounding country.
The school was closed during the War of 1861-65,
and the buildings used for a hospital. It seems it
had never been fully paid for, and the creditor pro-
cured a sale and it passed out of the control of the
Baptists. The purchaser, Mr. George Ragsdale, leased
it to a Mrs. Holcombe, who opened a school in the
building called " Emma Mercer Institute/' She was
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 201
not successful, and after a few years was succeeded
by Prof. R. A. Irwin.
At this period, 1873, the county superintendent of
public education said in his report to the State super-
" The Emma Mercer Institute is an institution of
considerable renown as a female seminary, under the
management of Prof. R. A. Irwin, a gentleman of high
moral character, a fine scholar, and a thorough educa-
tor, being assisted by his wife, a most estimable lady,
who exercises a maternal supervision over the young
ladies intrusted to her care; and with the above are
associated three lady teachers of superior qualifica-
tions, making in all five, all of whom, combined,
insure the advancement and best interest in every
respect of the highest type of mental and moral train-
ing. The number of young ladies in attendance
averages 80. "
The institution was in debt, and about 1873 it was
sold for $7,000 or $8,000, and bought by a joint stock
company. The Episcopalians thought of buying it,
but some fear about the title prevented them.
The company changed the name to Grenada Female
College. From this time until 1882 there were fre-
quent changes of presidents, and the school did not
prosper; it accomplished little good.
In 1882 it was purchased by the North Mississippi
Conference for a nominal sum, and the Rev Thomas
J. Newell, a member of the Conference, became presi-
dent and has remained in office ever since. The Con-
ference obtained a new charter, in 1884, under the
name of Grenada Collegiate Institute.
The completion of the college course, without an-
cient or modern languages, entitles a student to the
degree of M. E. L. ; the completion of the English
course and Latin and one modern language entitles
to the A. M. degree. The institution has no income
except its earnings.
202 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
The Central Female Institute, now Hillman College,
This school was established by the Baptist Church
at Clinton, Hinds County, in 1853. Its work was
not interrupted by the War of 1861-65, and it is
now pursuing- its fifty-fourth year of uninterrupted
work. The Baptists planned a building to cost $60,-
ooo, but it has never been finished. The part that was
finished before the war cost $4,000, and since that
time additions have been made as demanded.
The institution was incorporated in 1853. Estab-
lished in Clinton, where the Baptists had already
established Mississippi College, and fostered by that
denomination, its success was assured from the begin-
ning. The attendance averages 120 per annum; the
highest number was 169, in 1859, and the lowest 60,
The plan of instruction includes literary, musical,
ornamental and industrial departments. The literary
department is divided into primary, preparatory, and
collegiate schools. In the collegiate department there
are three courses leading to graduation. The English
course, without foreign languages, leads to the M. E. L.
degree; the English course with Latin and Greek, or
Latin and French, or Latin and German leads to the
A. B. degree; the English course with one ancient or
one modern language entitles the student to a di-
Notwithstanding the $60,000 building has never
been completed, the Institute has ample room for all
purposes a large, well-furnished boarding depart-
ment, well-supplied laboratories, suitably equipped
studios for music and art, and a valuable museum of
geological and mineralogical specimens and natural
history specimens, including fossils, shells, and algae.
The Institute does not own a library, but the Pres-
ident owns a library of 1,500 volumes, and the Les-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 203
bian Society has a large library, both of which are
accessible to the students.
Prof. William Duncan was the first president; for
many years Rev. Walter Hillman has been president.
At the commencement of 1891 the name was
changed to Hillman College, as a slight recognition of
the many and valuable services rendered to the Col-
lege by Mr. Hillman.
204 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Schools in Missouri
Mary Institute, St. Louis, Missouri, 1859-1908
THE Mary Institute was founded under the pro-
visions of the charter of Washington University, in
1859, and was thus established as a branch of Wash-
ington University. The design of its founders was
to establish a school of so high a grade that the people
of St. Louis could educate their daughters without
sending them away from home; and so far as school
requirements go, this standard has always been main-
tained. But although the Institute makes a specialty
of fitting girls for the higher institutions of learning,
it does not do work that is beyond the most advanced
The Institute was organized in a building erected
on Lucas Place, at a cost of $25,000; but it gradually
outgrew these accommodations, and in 1878 a more
spacious and convenient structure was built on the
corner of Locust and Beaumont streets, at an expense
of $70,000. This building, which easily accommodates
400 pupils, is heated with hot air, well ventilated and
lighted. It has served a useful purpose, but since it
was erected the residence portion of the city has ex-
tended westward, and in order to meet the new condi-
tions that have thus arisen a still more commodious
structure has been erected on Lake avenue, near Forest
Park. The new building is completed in all its ap-
pointments, and is expected to provide the school an
adequate and permanent home.
The Institute is well provided with works of refer-
ence, maps, charts, and apparatus. The instruction
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 205
in natural science is accompanied with laboratory work
with the most modern apparatus. The department
of botany has special advantages through being incor-
porated as part of the Shaw School of Botany.
The equipment of the Institute includes also a
kitchen, fitted with the appliances used in the best
cooking schools, in which instruction in cooking and
domestic science is given to the senior class by a trained
and competent teacher. The domestic science depart-
ment also has entire control of the lunch-room, which
has been established by the Institute in order that
pupils and teachers may be able to obtain a wholesome
and palatable meal at midday without leaving the
The school is divided into primary, preparatory, and
academic departments. Each of these three departments
is entirely distinct and separate from the other two,
having its own study and recitation rooms, its own
methods of work, and its own teachers.
The primary department is open to children of five,
who have had no previous instruction. This course
is completed in three years, and includes singing, draw-
ing, and calisthenics, in addition to the regular branches
in the course of study.
The preparatory department has four classes, which
follow a course very similar to that prescribed for
the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh grades of the pub-
lic schools. Oral training in French is begun in the
primary department and continued through two years
of the preparatory department. German is begun in
the third year of the preparatory department, thus giv-
ing a seven-year course.
The academic department gives substantially the
same training that is provided in the best high schools.
All students receive instruction in drawing, singing,
The certificate of the Institute admits to Smith, Vas-
sar, Wellesley and Wells ; also to Washington Univer-
sity and the University of Missouri.
206 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
The following communication will explain in part
why the Institute was called " Mary Institute."
" To the Board of Directors of Washington Univer-
" The undersigned have placed in the hands of Geo.
Partridge, Esq., four thousand dollars, to aid in the
completion of the building and purchasing the equip-
ment for the Female Seminary in Lucas Place on
condition that the same seminary be called ' Mary In-
stitute,' and its founding bears the date May n, 1859.
Signed, Wayman Crow, R. P. McCrury, James
Smith, George Partridge.'*
It happened that the name " Mary " was borne by
some of the members of the families of these gentle-
men and they thought it the most beautiful and most
honored name among women.
(The writer is indebted for much of the material
for this sketch to Miss Sarah G. Hayes, who kindly
copied it from the records of Washington University.
The remainder was taken from catalogues. )
Christian College, Columbia, Missouri, 1851-1908
This college was chartered by an Act of the General
Assembly of the State of Missouri, January 18. 1851.
(Laws of Missouri, 1:51, pp. 310-312.) According
to the terms of this charter, James Shannon, T. B. B.
Smith, Thomas M. Allen, D. P. Henderson, William
McClure, W. W. Hudson, Robert S. Barr, Thomas
D. Grant, Levi T. Smith, Flavel Vivian, John Jami-
son, W. F. Birch, J. J. Allen, J. C. Fox, Lewis Bryan,
Elijah Patterson, John S. Phelps, Wayman Grow,
S. S. Church, and Moses Land were to constitute a
corporate body with perpetual succession. (Sec. I,
P- 3 11 -)
Also, " said College shall be located at such a place
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 207
within the State as shall be designated by a majority
of the trustees herein named/' (Sec. 2.)
At the time of locating the College the trustees, or
a majority of them, shall determine the name. (Sec.
3.) After the College has been located and named
the trustees shall have absolute control of the property
belonging to the College. (Sec. 3.) Trustees shall
have power to make all by-laws for the governing of
the College (Sec. 4.), and to fill all vacancies which
may occur in their body, and reduce their number to
nine. As soon as the funds permit a building shall be
erected. (Sec. 8.) Trustees have power to appoint
all necessary officers to conduct and manage the insti-
tution, and to remove them from office, and fix their
compensation. Also power to grant such literary
honors as are usually granted by colleges or univer-
sities in the United States. (Sees. 8-9.) Diplomas
of this College shall " entitle the possessor to all the
immunities which by law or usage is allowed to pos-
sessor of similar diplomas granted by any college or
university in the United States." (Sec. n.)
Trustees shall have power to add other departments
to the College whenever they deem it necessary. ( Sec.
13.) Neither the number of departments nor the
course of study is indicated in the charter.
" As early as 1848 the idea of founding a female
college in the interests of the Christian Church began
to take shape in the minds of some of the leaders of
that body." Christian College owes its existence more,
perhaps, to D. P. Henderson (a minister of the Chris-
tian Church of Missouri) than to any one else.
In 1850 James Shannon, president of Bacon College
at Harrodsburg, Kentucky, was elected president of
Missouri State University. President Shannon, as-
sisted by D. P. Henderson, S. S. Church, and F. M.
Allen, obtained a charter for Christian College.
(Baccalaureate address before Christian College, May
31, 1888, pp. 40-53 of the thirty-seventh annual cata-
logue of Christian College.)
208 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
In November, 1849, Dr. Samuel Hatch and Prof.
Henry White of Bacon College, Harrodsburg, Ken-
tucky, came to Columbia with the view of inaugurat-
ing a " Female Collegiate Institute." They, in con-
nection with Dr. Henderson and President Shannon
of the -State University, successfully carried their plan
into execution, and on the recommendation of Dr.
Shannon, John Augustus Williams of Kentucky was
elected the first president of the newly founded institu-
tion. A small house in the town was at first used,
but so rapidly did the school grow a new building be-
came necessary. The incomplete residence and
twenty-nine acres of land, belonging to the estate of
Dr. J. H. Bennett, were purchased in 1851, and the
building was opened for the regular session in Sep-
tember of the same year.
In 1856 Mr. Williams was succeeded as president by
Mr. L. B. Wilkes. In 1858 J. K. Rogers was elected
president and held the office for twenty years. Sev-
eral times during the War between the States Northern
soldiers bivouacked near the building, but the College
was not closed.
The presidents since Mr. Rogers have been Prof.
O. S. Bryant of Independence, Missouri ; W. A. Old-
ham of Lexington, Kentucky ; Mr. F. P. St. Clair, who
was succeeded a few months later by his widow, Mrs.
Luella Wilcox St. Clair, the first woman president
of Christian College. Mrs. St. Clair resigned her
position four years later and was succeeded by Mrs.
W. T. Moore. Two years later Mrs. St. Clair be-
came co-principal with Mrs. Moore. They still hold
this position. The average attendance of boarding
pupils is now something over one hundred. There
are nearly as many day pupils. This college ranks as
a secondary school ; that is, its diploma admits a pupil
to the freshman class of the Missouri State University.
It has been in active service fifty-two years since char-
tered, and two years prior to the granting of the
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 209
(This sketch was taken from a brief sketch of Chris-
tian College by Mrs. W. T. Moore in the Columbia
(Missouri) Herald of December 20, 1901.)
Baptist College for Women, Lexington, Missouri
This college was incorporated by an Act of General
Assembly of December 12, 1855, under the name of the
Baptist Female College. The names of twenty men
are enrolled in the charter as trustees. These trustees
were to hold office for one year, then the stockholders
were to meet and elect from their number twenty
trustees, each stockholder having one vote for each
share of stock he held. The charter gives the trustees
full control of the property of the College, except that
they may not sell any of the property nor erect any
additional buildings unless a majority of the stock-
holders shall request the same to be done. The
trustees also have full control of the administrative
affairs of the College. (See Local Laws and Private
Acts of the State of Missouri, Adjourned Session of
the 1 8th General Assembly, 1855.)
The College has been in successful operation from
the time of its foundation until the present, with the
exception of the four years of the War between the
States. It is the oldest existing college for girls
under the control of the Baptist denomination in Mis-
souri. According to the catalogue for the session of
1875-76 (the oldest belonging to the State Historical
Association of Missouri), the College had then the
three departments, preparatory, academic, and col-
legiate, with the extra departments of music, orna-
mental and fancy work, and post-graduate. The num-
ber of pupils was 107. This number included some
day pupils, as the College could accommodate only 60
boarding pupils. Since then the departments of litera-
ture, art, elocution, physical culture, and business have
been added to the former departments. Also addi-
tional accommodations for boarders have been made,
210 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
and in 1900 there were 118 pupils. The music depart-
ment of the College increased so rapidly that it has
become necessary to reorganize it on a different basis.
A new building near the main building has been pur-
chased for the conservatory, and it is proposed to
charter this department as a separate organization
under the name of " Missouri Conservatory of Music."
(See catalogue for 1900.)
Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri, 1856
On March 15, 1856, a meeting was held for the
purpose of establishing a " Baptist Female College "
in Columbia. The plan of organization was to issue
stock to subscribers, each share being valued at $100
and entitling its holder to one vote in the election of
At a meeting held May 26, 1856, the curators were
elected, and it was decided to open the College in
September or October, 1856. In June of the same
year William Rothwell was elected the first president,
and it was decided to open the College in September.
The College was chartered January 26, 1857, under
the name of Columbia Baptist Female College.
By the provisions of the charter the curators have
full control of the property of the College, except
that they cannot mortgage or sell the real estate of the
College unless the stockholders owning a majority of
the shares request the same. All property of the Col-
lege is held free from taxation. The number of cura-
tors provided for in the charter is not less than seven
nor more than twelve. They have control of the ad-
ministration of the affairs of the College. (See Laws
of Missouri, 1856-57, pp. 227, 228.)
In 1869 the Missouri Baptist General Association
took decided steps toward the establishment of a State
female college, and a committee was appointed to de-
vise ways and means to carry out this purpose. The
following year, 1870, the General Association met in
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH
St. Louis, and at this meeting the committee reported
" such an institution a necessity." The report was
adopted, and the Association invited all communities
to enter into competition for the location of the school.
The offer made by the trustees of the Baptist Female
College of Columbia being deemed the best, was ac-
cepted, and a committee was appointed to nominate a
board of curators. This committee in making its re-
port also presented a bond for $20,000 given by the
Hon. J. L. Stephens, as a beginning of a suitable en-
dowment for the College. The bond having been
accepted, the General Association instructed the cura-
tors to incorporate the new enterprise under the name
of Stephens College, in recognition of this generous
gift of Mr. Stephens. The College at present has real
estate and school equipment to the value of $125,000.
(From a sketch of Stephens College in the Columbia
(Missouri) Herald, December 20, 1901.)
When the College was organized there were three
departments, the preparatory, the collegiate and the or-
namental. The last included music, drawing and
painting. The course now includes primary and pre-
paratory departments, English, scientific, classical, and
post-graduate courses. Also schools of music, ora-
tory, physical culture, and arts; and a commercial de-
partment. This is a secondary school. Its graduates
are admitted into the freshman class of the State Uni-
(See catalogue for 1901.)
The Elizabeth Aull Seminary, Lexington, Missouri,
" The Elizabeth Aull Seminary was founded by the
lady whose name it bears, in the desire to provide for
the education of young women according to Christian
ideals. For this noble purpose Miss Aull gave build-
ing and grounds."
The Seminary is under the joint control of Lafayette
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Presbytery of Missouri and the Presbyterian Church
of Lexington. The church is represented in the man-
agement by a board of trustees and the Presbytery by
a " committee of visitors."
Dr. Lewis G. Barbour, now and for many years an
honored member of the faculty of Central University
of Kentucky, was the first president of Elizabeth Aull
Seminary. He held the office from 1860 until 1865.
Dr. J. A. Quarles, now of Washington and Lee Uni-
versity, of Virginia, should be mentioned, because, in
as much as his term of service was twice as long as that
of any other president, his influence upon the character
of the school was probably more decided. (From the
Elisabeth Aull Student, June, 1896.)
Thirteen trustees are named in the charter. Their
successors were to be elected by the Presbyterian
Church at Lexington. Their term of office was three
years from and after the election which was to be
held each year on the first Monday in April. The
board was divided into three classes to be determined
by lot four in the first class, whose term of office
was to expire the first Monday in April, 1860; four in
the second class, whose term of office was to last until
April, 1 86 1, and five in the third class, whose term of
office was to last until April, 1862. The trustees were
given the powers usually conferred upon the trustees
of a College or Seminary.
The charter is found in the Laws of the State of
Missouri passed at the first session of the General
The first catalogue in the library of the Historical
Association of Missouri shows that there were 137
pupils during the years 1871-72, and the catalogue for
1898-99 shows only 58 enrolled. The College has
suspended, but was in continued existence from its
foundation until after the session of 1899. There is
a resolution passed by the board of trustees just before
the session of 1871-72 that deserves mention. " Re-
solved, That there shall, from this time forth, be no
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 213
public exhibitions, no cantatas, in fact nothing ap-
proaching a theatrical display in the exercise of this
Seminary." The reason for this resolution was " that
woman's sphere is the home circle; that she is neither
fitted nor designed by God for the public life of man " ;
believing this, " our purpose is to educate her for her
hallowed privacy. On this account we have entirely
discarded the custom of parading our girls before the
common crowd in annual exhibitions/' (Catalogue
for 1871, 1872.)
Howard-Payne College, Fayette, Missouri, 1828-1908
Mr. Green begins his great history of the English
people by a study of their condition in the forests
of Germany before the migration to Great Britain.
Similarly, the history of Howard-Payne College may
be begun with the establishment of Fayette Academy
by Mr. Archibald Patterson, in 1828. The Academy
building was a one-story brick building having two
rooms, one for the boys and one for the girls. Mr.
Patterson's great ambition was to establish a college
of high grade in Fayette, and he labored assiduously
to accomplish this purpose. Doubtless largely through
his influence a more imposing edifice than the little
red-brick schoolhouse was begun. The work pro-
gressed slowly, and before the building was com-
pleted Mr. Patterson moved the school into it. The
building caught fire from a stove in one of the rooms
of the lower floor and was destroyed February, 1838,
and the school returned to the little red-brick school-
house. Mr. Patterson continued the school success-
fully until the spring of 1844, when he accepted a
call to Marion College, Palmyra, Missouri.
Meanwhile, the location of the State University was
exciting much interest. The citizens, in anticipation
of this, circulated subscription papers, raised some
money, and commenced work on a large two-story
building with four imposing columns in front; but
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
failing to attain their ambition the work lagged and
the interior was not finished when the contractors
caused the building to be sold December 6, 1844. Mr.
William D. Swinney bought it, and in 1847 conveyed
it to a board of trustees to be held in trust for a public
institution of learning, to be under the control of the
Methodist Episcopal Church South.
In the summer of 1844 Dr. William T. Lucky and
his young wife, Mary Scarritt, became citizens of Fay-
ette, and in the fall of that year he opened a school in
the little red schoolhouse, commencing with seven
pupils. The school was so popular that in less than
two years the building was crowded, and the family
accommodations of the town were taxed to accommo-
date the pupils from abroad. Mr. Lucky taught his
classes by day, and in his leisure hours and often by
night assisted in the work on the college building. In
1845 Mr. Lucky, assisted by his brother-in-law, Mr.
Nathan Scarritt, organized Howard High School.
Two years later it was transferred to the control of
the board of trustees chosen by Mr. Swinney, and thus
became identified with Southern Methodism in Mis-
souri. The Annual Conference of M. E. C. South,
which met in Fayette, 1851, was so favorably im-
pressed with the school that Rev. J. S. Riggs was ap-
pointed financial agent to raise funds for a boarding-
house, which was much needed. In January, 1854,
the building with the furniture, library, apparatus and
books of 352 pupils were destroyed by fire. The of-
ficers of the different churches kindly tendered the use
of the churches, and such was the administrative
ability of Dr. Lucky that only one day was lost from
Previous to the fire the boys and girls had been
taught in different apartments of the same building;
henceforth they were to be taught in separate build-
ings. The boys' school became the foundation of
Central College, which was organized in 1857; while
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 215
the girls' department was chartered as Howard Female
College in 1859, by the Legislature of Missouri.
A heavy debt on the College necessitated its sale in
1869. It was purchased by Moses U. Payne and
deeded by him to the " board of curators," " to have
and hold for the use of the Methodist Episcopal
Church South, in the State of Missouri, subject to the
discipline, usages, rules, and regulations of the Mis-
souri Conference of said church, as from time to time
enacted and declared by said Conference; and that
said premises be used for female school purposes ex-
In consideration of the liberality of Rev. Moses U.
Payne, the board of curators, at its session in June,
1892, and by authority of the Missouri Conference
granted at its session in September, 1891, changed the
name of the institution to Howard-Payne College.
Thus this school has been in active operation since
1828; first as a department of an academy, then as a
department of a high school, and for forty-eight years
a school for girls exclusively.
The first graduating class received certificates in
1849. This was a bright era in the history of the
school. Gradually the usual departments of a first-
class seminary had been added and the standard of
scholarship had been much elevated. Its first class
was regarded as equal to any in the West.
During the first fourteen years of its existence more
than 2,000 pupils received instruction in Howard High
School; many of these became teachers. The in-
fluence of this school upon the standard of education,
particularly the education of girls, has been felt in
every part of Missouri.
The first and only principal of Howard High
School was Dr. Lucky. He was also the first presi-
dent of Howard College, which office he held two
years, resigning in 1861.
The present course of study is arranged as prepara-
216 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
tory and collegiate, each requiring four years for its
completion. The Bible has been arranged in a four-
year course, and all who take the full course are re-
quired to take this also. Ample provision has been
made for the departments of music, art, elocution, and
physical culture. A museum containing an excellent
collection of minerals, ores, etc., a library containing
1,200 volumes, and a reading-room furnished with
current literature afford good facilities for teaching.
The College grants diplomas conferring the degrees
of Mistress of Arts and Mistress of English Litera-
ture ; also diplomas or certificates of graduation in the
schools of instrumental music, vocal music, expression,
painting and drawing. Elective courses are offered to
those not desiring a regular college course, and a nor-
mal course is offered to those wishing to prepare to
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 217
Early Schools in North Carolina
DURING the period of Proprietary government
(1663-1729) only two or three schools are on record.
The first report of any schools in the Province was
made by Dr. John Blair, a missionary to the colony
in 1704. From his reports we find that the first
churches Episcopal churches had lay readers to
supply them with sermons, and these readers were
teachers in almost every case. Near every parish
church was a parish school.
Neither the population nor the churches nor the
schools increased rapidly. It was not until 1752,
when the Scotch-Irish began to come in great numbers,
that the population exceeded 50,000. These Scotch-
Irish Presbyterians brought with them deeper and
more practical ideas of religion and culture, and
churches began to multiply. Every Presbyterian
preacher was a teacher, and schools became the right
arm of the churches.
The Moravians came about the same time, and
churches and schools have been vital points of their
life. Even their records are meager. Only in con-
nection with the life and labors of some pastor a
school is mentioned ; no details ; nothing to show
whether girls were allowed the benefit of these schools
About 1782 the interest in education had advanced
so much that the Legislature began to incorporate acad-
emies. From 1782 to 1799, seventeen years, there
were thirty-three academies incorporated, but only the
names of the incorporators, the name of the academy,
the date, and the property rights can now be ascer-
218 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
tained, and it is only through the descendants of the
girls who attended school, by means of old books and
papers still extant, that anything can bs learned
about the scholastic advantages of the girls of that
Catalogues were not used, paper was scarce and
very high priced even newspapers were printed on
sheets 6 by 7 inches. From such sources it has been
ascertained that some of these charters established two
schools, one for boys and one for girls.
The first academy for girls so established was New
Berne Academy, Craven County, in 1764.
Bladen Academy was chartered in 1797, and Adams
Creek, Craven County, in 1798.
The only incorporated school of the old days in
Brunswick County was Smithville Academy, chartered
in 1798. It had numerous trustees, and was author-
ized to raise $7,000 by lottery. This scheme failed.
Hon. A. M. Waddell says his mother, daughter of
Alfred Moore, Jr., and granddaughter of Judge A.
Moore, attended this school at Smithville. Mrs.
Clitherall, nee Burgwyn, was the principal in 1820.
This school was established after the close of the
Revolutionary War, but prior to 1800.
In 1805 Union Hill Academy was chartered, and
in 1809 the trustees of this academy were authorized
to raise by lottery $5,000 to complete the building and
to establish an academy for girls at Asheville.
The Female Academy at Raleigh was established in
Also in 1809 a school for girls was taught by J.
Mordecai and assistants. The closing examination
was held in December, on English grammar, history,
and geography with the use of the globes. Parents,
guardians and friends of the school were invited to
attend. A commendation of the management and the
proficiency of the pupils was published in the local
paper, signed by over twenty citizens. Music, draw-
ing and painting were taught under the direction of
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 219
Mr. Miller. The terms for board and tuition were
$105 per annum. Many of the young ladies appeared
in dresses embroidered and made by themselves; and
other specimens of needlework were displayed.
In 1 8 10 Miss Frances Bo wen opened a school for
girls in Kayetteville.
In February, 1810, Mr. William White, secretary
of the board of trustees, sent out the following cir-
cular : " Mrs. Sanbourne will teach music, plain sew-
ing, and ornamental needlework, embroidery, drawing,
and painting. The other branches, history, writing,
reading, arithmetic, English grammar, and geography,
and French, will be taught by the teachers of the acad-
emy for boys, until further notice."
Morgan Academy was chartered in 1783; Morgan-
ton Academy in 1823 and again in 1844. In the Act
of 1823 it was recited that " there had been for many
years an academy at Morganton with a flourishing
male and female school attached to it."
Among the teachers for girls at Morganton mention
is made of the Misses Maria and Harriet Allen from
Pennsylvania, Miss Mcllwaine, Miss Cowan, and Miss
The Shocco Female Seminary, Warren County, was
announced as follows : " Mrs. Lucas informs her
friends and the public that her school will be resumed
the first Monday in February. Having associated
with her an able female assistant, the following
branches will be taught: Spelling, reading, writing,
arithmetic, grammar, geography, astronomy, natural
philosophy, rhetoric, chemistry, logic, history, myth-
ology, and botany. Board and tuition, $50 per session
of five months ; music, $20 ; half in advance. Decem-
ber 5, 1826."
On the same date appeared the announcement of the
Hillsboro Female Seminary:
" The principal informs the patrons of this school
that in addition to the able female help already em-
220 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
ployed, he will be assisted by a gentleman in every way
qualified to teach advanced classes. An apparatus for
a chemical laboratory, and for use of pupils in natural
philosophy and astronomy, has been purchased; and a
foundation for a mineralogical cabinet made. Tuition
from $10 to $15; music, $24; drawing and painting,
$10 each; needlework $i per session.
"WM. M. GREEN, Supt."
This must have been an Episcopal school, for Mr.
Green was, some years later, the Bishop of Mississippi.
In 1827 Rev. Elisha Graves taught a school at Wal-
nut Grove, twelve miles from Hillsboro. " Every nec-
essary and useful branch of literature and some orna-
mental branches " were taught.
In 1830 Mr. and Mrs. Spencer O'Brien, principals,
assisted by an able assistant in each department, taught
the Williamsboro Female Academy.
In 1830 the Southern Female Classical Seminary, at
Oxford, Granville County, was " conducted by Mr.
and Mrs. Hollister, assisted by a young lady every
way qualified for her work. The course of instruction
is more extended than heretofore; and more than is
usually obtained in girls' schools."
Since its settlement Charlotte has been an educa-
tional center. Very early in its history there was an
institution known as the Charlotte Female Institute.
In 1838 it was in charge of Mr. and Mrs. Spencer,
who were considered excellent teachers.
Some other schools in Mecklenburg County, in the
vicinity of Charlotte, were Providence Whitehall Acad-
emy, taught in 1852 by Miss H. G. Graham; and
Providence Female Academy, taught by Miss Sarah J.
Parks, principal. In 1853 T. M. Kirkpatrick, who
had been teaching at Davidson Colleee, began Sharon
Female Academy, seven miles from Charlotte. At his
death, in 1855, he was succeeded by Miss Eliza Parker.
In 1855 Miss Susan Rudesill was teaching a school
for girls at the residence of Mrs. Margaret Greer, in
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH
the Paw Creek section. Rev. J. M. Caldwell and his
wife taught at Sugar Creek several years prior to 1845.
Then Misses Gould and Chamberlain conducted Clare-
mont Academy, and in 1852 Miss Mary Ann Frew
About the same time a Miss Alexander taught a
girls' school near Charlotte, and in 1853 Miss Brandon
conducted Mt. Carmel Academy. The next year
Adolphus Evveite introduced a new system of draw-
Mecklenburg has had an interesting history, and her
citizens have wielded a powerful influence on the
destinies of the " Old North State," but much of the
history of her schools for girls has been lost ; however,
one interesting fact the name of the first lady
teacher has been preserved. She was Miss Eliza-
beth Cummins, who taught a four months' school in
the county in 1774.
In the small isolated settlements it was impossible
to have a regular school, but even then the girls were
not neglected; some gentlemen would assume the
responsibility of employing a governess and providing
a schoolroom, and his neighbors, with his full and
free consent, would avail themselves of this oppor-
tunity to send their daughters to school. Such a
school was established in Chatham County, by Mr.
Edward Jones, Solicitor-General of the State of North
Carolina. In course of time the daughters took charge
of it, and one of them named the school Kelvin, be-
cause she so much admired the Scotch song, " Let us
haste to Kelvin Grove, Bonnie Lassie, O." The school
was removed to Pittsboro, the county-seat, where Miss
Charlotte Jones married Mr. William H. Harden.
They continued the Kelvin school until they went to
Columbia Institute, Tennessee, during the forties.
Alamance County was settled by Germans and Ger-
man was the language used. English was not intro-
duced until 1812, and did not become the principal
language until 1828. However, schools sprang up in
222 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Alamance prior to 1740, and there is little doubt that
there were schools for girls as well as for boys.
About the same time the Friends (Quakers) had
schools about Cane Creek and Spring Meeting-house.
One of these, taught by Mr. Matt Thompson and his
wife, must have been a school for girls, at least it had
a department for girls.
Dr. Kemp Battle had prepared a list of teachers most
eminent in their day and generation, which has been
published in the biennial report of the Superintendent
of Public Instruction of North Carolina. From this
list the names of women so distinguished and the
names of schools for girls have been culled.
At a very early period tradition points to a period
prior to the Revolutionary War a school was estab-
lished at Springhill, Lenoir County, and was greatly
prosperous as late as 1812.
About the same time Kinston Female Seminary was
under the charge of the Misses Patrick. Also prior
to the Revolution Miss Ann Earl had a school of some
note in Chowan County.
Between 1800 and 1825 Rev. Gilbert Morgan and
Mrs. Morgan were principals of a school at Greens-
boro. This school must have had a department for
girls, as women did not teach school for boys, and
mixed schools were not in favor with Southern people,
The schools at Nashville and Louisville were of this
type; these schools were taught by John B. Bobbitt
and Mrs. Bobbitt. During this period Mrs. Robert L.
Edmonds was principal of Wadesboro Female Semi-
nary ; and Miss Ann Hall was also principal of a school
Between the years 1825 and 1850 the teachers who
began teaching were: Miss Mary B. Cotta, who es-
tablished a school of justly deserved repute in Wash-
ington, Beaufort County, some time in the 30*8. She
taught there many years, then married Rev. Thomas
R. Owen. She then returned to Tarboro, where she
and her husband opened a similar school. After her
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH
departure from Washington the school was taught by
Miss Fanny Owens. Mrs. Harriet Banks taught a
school in Murfreesboro, Miss Emma J. Taylor in
Caldwell County, Mrs. Martha Hutsell in Buncombe
County, Miss Hoye was principal of Edgeworth
Female Seminary, Miss Maria J. Holmes and Miss
Charlotte Jones taught in Pittsboro, and Miss Mabel
Bingham in Fayetteville.
The Goldsboro Seminary was under the charge of
Rev. James H. Brant, and Miss Maria L. Spear was
the principal of Hillsboro Seminary. Miss Mary
Mann taught a school for girls in Columbia, Tyrrell
County; Miss Margaret Smith in Milton, Miss Sara
Kolloch in Greensboro and Hillsboro, Mrs. Charles
Mock in Davidson, and Misses Sarah and Maria Nash
taught in Greensboro, but whether in the same school
with Mr. and Mrs. Morgan or not does not appear.
Rev. Angus B. McNeill, principal of Spring Vale
Academy established a school for girls about a quarter
of a mile from the Academy, and brought Miss Har-
riet Bizzle from the North to take charge of it. This
school had a large patronage. After the marriage of
Miss Bizzle and Mr. McNeill they continued the
school for some time, and then moved to Carthage in
Moore County, and taught successfully until the people
objected to Mrs. McNeill's unreasonable severity of
discipline. After the departure of the McNeills, Rev.
Murdock McMillan and Mrs. McMillan took charge
of Spring Vale Academy.
About 1850 there was an institute for girls in Buck-
land, Gates County, of which Samuel E. Smith was
principal. About 1852 James W. Coston founded a
seminary for girls at Sunbury; all the teachers were
from the North and all have been forgotten, even their
names are unknown, except Miss Mary Williams,
whose name has been preserved by the following in-
cident: She and some of the scholars lived in the
family of Mr. Coston, who was in the habit of prefac-
ing breakfast with prayers of unreasonable length.
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Once when Miss Mary's appetite was particularly
sharp, after kneeling until her patience was exhausted,
she arose with a snap, and exclaimed, " Mr. Coston,
are you going to pray three weeks ? "
In 1837 Rev. William McPheeters, D. D., the emi-
nent principal of Raleigh Academy, took charge of a
school for girls in Fayetteville, but failing health
caused him to resign at a very early period in its his-
tory. Mrs. Carr, widow of Rev. Daniel Carr, of
Christian (Methodist) Church and editor of the Chris-
tian Sun, taught a school for girls in Graham, Ala-
mance County. This school attained some popularity
and was well attended, though just when it flourished
does not appear in the records. In 1848, and for
some years afterward, Rev. Thomas Meredith, founder
of the Biblical Record, was principal of an institution
for girls in Raleigh.
Chalk Level Academy for boys and girls was estab-
lished in 1835 b y Mr - Doyle Pearson of Person
County. His sister Elizabeth was principal of the
department for girls. The school acquired a high
reputation. The boys' department averaged about
seventy, and the girls' about one hundred. The build-
ings were half a mile apart.
Washington Academy, Washington, Beaufort
County, was chartered in 1808 and again in 1834.
Trustees have been regularly elected since the latter
date. The Academy was wisely made capacious, and
is now allowed to be used as a part of the graded-
school system, the trustees retaining the ownership.
About 1826 Mr. and Mrs. Sanford were principals;
then Rev. George W. Freeman, afterward D. D.,
rector of the Episcopal Church in Raleigh, and then
Bishop of Arkansas. He is remembered as an excel-
lent teacher. After him Miss Richmond from Massa-
chusetts was employed by a few heads of families to
take charge of a select school, which she did to their
great satisfaction. Beginning with 1832, for five
years Washington secured the services of Mr. May-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 225
hew, an estimable man and a skilled instructor.
Among his pupils were Mrs. O'Branch, Miss Marcia
Rodman, and Mrs. Olivia Myers, and other like ac-
complished ladies. In the fall of 1843 Mr. William
Bogart left his school in Edenton, and with great ac-
ceptability took charge of Washington Academy until
the War between the States.
(Much of the data concerning these old schools
have been furnished by Mrs. H. DeB. Wills, who
searched through old newspapers and other records for
the facts here recorded. Much has been taken from
Mr. Kemp P. Battle's paper, " Partial List of the Most
Prominent Teachers to 1850." Also some facts from
" The Church and Private Schools of North Caro-
Greensboro College for Women, Greensboro, North
The necessity of establishing a college for women
was felt by prominent ministers and intelligent lay-
men of the Methodist Episcopal Church for several
years before any direct effort was made to establish
such an institution. The subject was frequently dis-
cussed in the annual conferences ; finally definite action
was brought about by the petition sent by the trustees
of Greensboro Female College to the Virginia Con-
ference, which met in Petersburg, January 31, 1836.
At that time the North Carolina Conference was or-
ganized, and the churches in North Carolina ceased to
belong to the Virginia Conference,
The petition was referred to a committee consisting
of Rev. Moses Brock, Rev. Peter Doub, and Rev.
Samuel S. Bryant. After setting forth the necessity
of a school of high grade for the education of women,
under the auspices of the North Carolina Conference,
the committee reported the following resolutions,
which were adopted:
" Resolved, i. That the Conference will co-operate
226 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
with the trustees of ' Green's Female School/ provided
that one-half the number of the board of trustees shall
at all times be members of the North Carolina Con-
" Resolved, 2. That the board thus constituted shall
petition the Legislature of North Carolina for a proper
charter for a seminary of learning, to be called the
Greensboro Female College.
" Resolved, 3. That the Conference appoint Moses
Brock, John Hand, James Reid, Bennett T. Blake,
William E. Pell, and Samuel S. Bryant, trustees, to
carry into effect the object contemplated by the pre-
" Resolved, 4. That the Bishop be requested to ap-
point an agent for the purpose of raising funds for
" MOSES BROCK, Chairman."
In accordance with the foregoing resolutions the ten
ministers named in the third resolution, and ten lay-
men, constituting the board of trustees, secured from
the Legislature a charter granting the rights and priv-
ileges usually bestowed upon colleges of high grade.
The charter was ratified December 28, 1838. (T. M.
Jones, in " Centennial of Methodism in North Caro-
On account of the severe depression in all lines of
business it required several years of canvassing to
raise sufficient funds to erect the building. For the
accomplishment of this difficult task we are indebted
to the untiring efforts of S. S. Bryant, Moses Brock,
James Reid, and Ira T. Wyche, who were agents for
the College in those trying years. The corner-stone
was laid in September, 1843. In l8 46 the building
was completed and ready for occupancy, but the
trustees did not select a faculty until the following-
year. In the fall of that year the classes were or-
ganized and work commenced uftder the administra-
tion of Rev. Solomon Lea, who had the honor of be-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH
ing the first president of the first chartered college for
women in North Carolina.
Mr. Lea resigned at the close of the first session,
and was succeeded by Rev. A. M. Shipp, D. D., of
South Carolina. For three years the College pros-
pered under his wise administration and twenty-six
young women were graduated from the institution.
Rev. Charles F. Deems, D. D., who succeeded Dr.
Shipp in 1850, grasped the situation and mastered it
immediately, and the patronage was largely increased.
It continued to flourish to the close of his administra-
tion in 1854. At that time Rev. Turner Myrick Jones,
afterward Rev. T. M. Jones, D. D., was a professor
in the College. The board of trustees recognized in
him the qualities needed in a man to render him suited
for great enterprises. Fortunately for the College,
he was elected president and held that position until
his greatly lamented death in 1890. For thirty-six
years Dr. Jones labored for the cause of education of
women as no other man in North Carolina evei
labored. His valuable life was given to this work.
While he was president, in 1863, the College buildings
were destroyed by fire in the midst of its greatest pros-
perity. The Conference immediately formulated plans
to rebuild. In 1871 work was begun, and on the 27th
day of August, 1873, the College was reopened in the
present commodious building.
Dr. B. F. Dixon was elected to succeed Dr. Jones.
For three years the College enjoyed unusually large
patronage, and ninety-three young ladies were gradu-
ated during Dr. Dixon's administration. In April,
1893, Dr. Dixon resigned, and Rev. Frank Reid was
elected president of the faculty. Dr. Reid came to the
College in the prime of life, and his first year's work
proved the wisdom of his election. The fall session
of 1894 opened with most favorable prospects, but the
honored president was not destined to see the fruits of
his labors. On September 24, 1894, this gifted scholar
and preacher was called from earth to heaven, and left
228 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
the College family in deep mourning for its beloved
head. Dred Peacock, at that time a professor in the
College, was elected to succeed Dr. Reid, and is now
the president of the faculty.
Under the present administration the different de-
partments have been thoroughly reorganized. The
courses of study have been expanded and enlarged.
This was rendered possible only by the addition of
more appliances in the form of laboratories equipped
with ample chemical and physical apparatus, mathe-
matical instruments and figures, and new pianos. A
well-selected library containing more than 6,500 vol-
umes, besides pamphlets and general magazine and
periodical literature, has enabled the students to do a
grade of work unattainable in the average school for
women. The past six years have been unusually suc-
cessful, both as regards numbers in attendance and the
highly satisfactory quality of the work accomplished.
A very large debt was incurred in erecting the pres-
ent building, which the Conference tried for years to
pay. Having failed to do this, the College was finally
sold at auction for debt. At this juncture a syndicate
of large-hearted, liberal men was formed to purchase
it in order that it might be continued as a college for
women for the Methodist Church in North Carolina.
These gentlemen still own and control the College.
They have no desire or expectation of making any
money out of the investment.
The building is a three-storied brick structure, and
stands on the top of a beautiful hill in the center of a
grove containing forty acres. It is heated by steam
and lighted by electricity, and connected with the
water-works of the city. It affords ample accommo-
dation for one hundred and twenty-five boarders.
The course of study requires four years for its com-
pletion, and is divided into freshman, sophomore,
junior, and senior classes. Latin and either French
or German are required to secure a diploma, but a
certificate is given on completion of the course without
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 229
the study of the languages. Ample provision has been
made for the departments of music, art, elocution, busi-
ness, and physical culture.
During the latter part of 1894 Mrs. Dred Peacock
established and endowed the Ethel Carr Peacock Read-
ing-Room. The board of directors immediately fur-
nished and decorated a room at their own expense. The
Alumnae Association has established the " Lucy Mc-
Gee Fund " in loving memory of Lucy McGee Jones,
wife of Dr. Turner M. Jones, fourth president of the
College. The annual income will be loaned to worthy
students of limited means.
From the opening of the College in 1847 till its
destruction by fire in 1863, 191 young ladies were
graduated; graduated elsewhere, between 1863 and
1874, under the administration of the same president
(Dr. Jones) and on the same course of study, 51.
Since the reopening of the College in 1873, 450; mak-
ing a total of 692.
The College provides for a systematic course of
(This sketch is based on information obtained from
annual catalogue for nineteen hundred.)
THE ACTION OF THE ALUMNAE ASSOCIATION OF
GREENSBORO FEMALE COLLEGE
The church, in common with other institutions, as
well as individuals, was embarrassed financially after
the War between the States, and, in spite of heroic
struggles, was unable to discharge the debt incurred
in erecting the new building, and it seemed impossible
for the church to retain the ownership of this be-
loved daughter. At this crisis a syndicate of promi-
nent laymen, actuated by the generous purpose of not
allowing the College to pass from the control of the
church, purchased the property in 1882, and held it
until August 5, 1903, when it became the property of
the Alumnae Association. The syndicate held the
230 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
property subject to the control of a board of directors,
for educational purposes and as a school for the Metho-
dist Church in North Carolina.
Though this syndicate did not purpose to make
money by this investment, it could not afford to hold
the property and lose money on it. For several years
the income of the school had not met the expenses, and
the debt in 1903 amounted to $42,000; therefore, when
Trinity College offered to buy the plant, the syndicate
was not averse to selling it. Trinity College, in ac-
cordance with the idea that only large colleges are
really helpful and that co-education is the proper
method, desired to enlarge her facilities and to remove
every school likely to compete with her desire to con-
trol the Greensboro College. Arrangements had been
completed between the managers of Trinity College
and the syndicate, when on June 19, 1903, the syndi-
cate announced that the doors of the College were
closed, and that it would go out of existence as an
educational institution. This announcement was a
painful surprise to the citizens of Greensboro and espe-
cially so to the alumnae of Greensboro College. The
resident alumnae immediately drafted resolutions to
be presented to the board of directors of the College,
praying them to grant the alumnae time to rally their
forces and formulate plans for saving the College for
the alumnae and through them for the Methodist
Church. They received no answer for some time, but
they saw a notice that there would be a meeting
August 5 to settle the affairs of the College. Realiz-
ing that the emergency must be promptly met, they
called a mass meeting of the citizens of Greensboro.
The meeting was addressed by Rev. S. B. Turrentine,
D. D., Governor Aycock, and others prominent in
church and state; the amount secured was $12,895.
The alumnae all over the South rallied to the aid of
the resident alumnae, and by August 5 they had raised
$52,000, the amount necessary to obtain possession of
the College, and had pledged themselves to raise
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH
$50,000 for an endowment fund. Thus Greensboro
College belongs to the Alumnae Association.
In the spring of 1902 Dr. Peacock having suffered
several years from ill health, resigned the presidency
of the College and the board of directors elected Mrs.
Lucy H. Robertson as his successor. Mrs. Robertson
had been a teacher for twenty-five years, and eighteen
of those years had been in connection with the College.
Her management of the school for the session of
1902-03 was satisfactory, and the Alumnae Associa-
tion announced that the school would be continued
under her management. An active canvass for the en-
dowment fund has been begun, and the Alumnae As-
sociation feel assured that the ultimate success of the
school will be secured when this fund is raised.
(The material for this sketch was obtained from
catalogues and papers sent by Dr. Dred Peacock, and
Mrs. Lucy H. Robertson.)
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Edgeworth Female Seminary, Greensboro, North
REV. WILLIAM D. PAISLEY moved to the little vil-
lage of Greensboro in 1820, and took charge of an
academy for boys. Later he took charge of an acad-
emy for girls. This academy stood between the resi-
dences of Mrs. Dillard and George McDonnell. The
first teacher, so far as can be ascertained, was Miss
Judith Mendenhall. According to the Greensboro
Patriot of February 23, 1831, Miss Ann D. Salmon, of
Fayetteville, was in charge of this school. She was
succeeded by a Miss Humphries, who taught a short
time. In 1836 Miss Mary Ann Hoye, and a young
lady who afterward became Mrs. Robert Lindsay, took
charge of the school, which they retained about three
Miss Hoye made such a fine impression on the
daughters of Hon. John M. Morehead, who was Gov-
ernor of North Carolina, 1841-1845, and one of the
most illustrious characters of the State, that he became
interested in the education of girls and determined to
erect a fine building for a school for girls. In 1840
he purchased a large tract of land, extending from the
old homestead of the Mebanes to what is now the prop-
erty of the Greensboro College for Girls, and from
Market street on the north to his home, Blandwood, on
the south. This property is now occupied by the resi-
dences of Mrs. Scales, widow of Governor A. M.
Scales, and Mrs. Ellington, widow of Capt. Neil Elling-
ton. At his own expense Governor Morehead built a
large four-story building with all the conveniences for
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH
a school. As soon as this building was completed
school was opened in it, in 1840, with Miss Hoye as
principal. It was a great success from the first. Pu-
pils from many Southern States were received. It was
the intention of Mr. Morehead to make it one of the
finest schools for girls in the whole country, and he
spared neither time nor money to accomplish this pur-
pose ; however, it was not a success financially. Among
the early teachers with Miss Hoye were Misses Emily
Hubbard and Eliza Rose of the literary department,
Misses Nash and Kolloch, teachers of music and
French, Rev. John A. Gretter, teacher of Latin, and
Profs. Breitz and Brant, music teachers.
In 1844 Miss Hoye died, and Dr. and Mrs. D. P.
Weir took charge of the school. Dr. Weir managed
the business of the institution, and taught chemistry
and natural philosophy. They held the position for a
short time. In 1845 Governor Morehead secured the
services of Rev. Gilbert Morgan and wife. Mr. Mor-
gan immediately changed the course of study from the
academic to the collegiate system. According to an
advertisement in the Greensboro Patriot, under date
of February I, 1845, their course of study was First
Department Davies' Arithmetic, Bullion's English,
Latin and Greek Grammars, Town's Spelling Book
and Analysis, Webster's 8vo Dictionary, Woodbridge
and Willard's Geography, with the use of Mitchell's
Outline Maps ; History of the United States, Book of
Commerce, Elements of Mythology, with lectures on
Jewish Antiquities; Watts on the Mind, with lectures
on Self-Knowledge and Self-Culture; the French.
Latin or Greek language, with one ornamental branch.
Second Department Davies' Algebra, Legendre's
Geometry, Newman's Rhetoric, Lincoln's Botany,
Paley's Natural Theology, Ancient and Mediaeval
History, Burritt's Geography of the Heavens, Blair's
Lectures. Third Department Maffett's Natural
Philosophy, with experiments, Critical study of the
English Language as the Vehicle of Thought its
234 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Etymology, Lexicography and History ; Abercrombie's
Chapter on Reason, with lectures as a system of Prac-
tical Logic; Smillie on Natural History, with lectures
on Astronomy and Physiology ; Alexander's Evidences.
Fourth Department Philosophy of Mind, Astronomy
as a Science, Kame's Elements of Criticism, Critical
Study of Milton and Shakespeare, Constitution of the
United States, Principles of Interpretation, Wayland's
Moral Philosophy, Guizot on Civilization, Butler's
Analogy, Lectures on the Harmony of Truth, or
Method and Plan of Self-Education. There was also
a preparatory department, to which girls of seven and
eight could go for their training for the first collegiate
The first term began on the 28th of May, the second
one, on the I3th of November. At the close of the
first session the examinations took place before a com-
mittee of visitors ; the final examinations at the end of
the year were public. The expenses per session of
five months were : board, washing, fuel, lights, and in-
struction in the ordinary branches, $75 ; piano, $20 ;
guitar, $15; drawing and painting, each $10; Latin,
Greek and French, each $10; wax work, $10; shell
work, $5 ; silk and worsted work, $5.
The school prospered under the management of Mr.
Morgan. In 1848 there were more than one hundred
boarders, and a large building was erected for the ac-
commodation of boarders, and also a building for an
art studio. Mr. Morgan resigned in 1 849-1850 and
was succeeded by Prof. Richard Sterling from Hamp-
ton-Sidney College, Virginia, who served until 1862,
when the school was closed by the War between the
States. When Mr. Sterling took charge of the school
it had reached its greatest enrollment, and had ample
equipment for the accommodation of boarders, a
laboratory well supplied with apparatus for scientific
courses, a music studio well supplied with musical in-
struments, an art studio, and a good library belonging
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 235
to the school and a large one belonging- to the prin-
cipal, which was free to the pupils. The faculty for
1856-1857 were: Richard Sterling, A. M., principal
and professor of belles-lettres and physical science;
Andrew J. Wood, A. B., professor of ancient and
modern languages; Isaac B. Lake, A. B., professor of
mathematics and geology; Rev. J. J. Smith, A. M.,
lecturer on moral science; J. Jaques Eyers. professor
of oil painting and drawing ; Heinrich Schneider, pro-
fessor of piano and harp; Miss Minna Raven, in-
structor in piano and vocal music; Miss Bettie Scott,
instructor in piano and guitar ; Miss M. Lizzie Dusen-
berry, instructor in piano ; Alfred M. Scales, steward ;
Mrs. A. M. Scales, matron ; Professor Maurice, French
In 1862 J. D. Campbell, A. M., was professor of
mathematics and rhetoric. He and Mr. Sterling wrote
and published "Our Own Third Reader" in 1863,
and in 1866 they published " The Southern Primer."
Professor Sterling also wrote and published " Sterl-
ing's Southern Second Reader " in 1866, and " Sterl-
ing's Fourth Reader" in 1865. All these were pub-
lished by Sterling, Campbell and Allbright, of Greens-
boro, North Carolina.
During the War between the States the building was
used by the Confederates as a hospital, and after the
war by the Federals for the same purpose ; hence there
was no school in the building from 1862 to 1868. In
the latter year the building was leased to Rev. J. J. M.
Caldwell, grandson of the distinguished Dr. David
Caldwell, who opened school September, 1868, and
continued to manage it until August, 1871. He then
returned to Rome, Georgia, where he had established
a school prior to the War between the States. His
departure closed the school of Edgeworth. For a
short time the building was occupied by Mr. Julius A.
Gray, a son-in-law of Governor Morehead. During
the year 1872 it was burned.
236 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Warrenton Female College, Warrenton, North Caro-
Warren County is situated in the section between
the Roanoke and Tar rivers. This section has been
noted for the variety of resources, its mild climate, and
especially for its hospitality and its cultured people.
Good schools have been maintained in this section since
the beginning of the nineteenth century. The two
schools for girls which flourished from 1841 to about
1865 were known far and wide. The first of these
was Warrenton Academy, which was founded as early
as 1841, and was located on the south side of the town.
The trustees bought the private residence of Mr. Kemp
Plummer for school purposes, and added to it the old
Presbyterian Church for a chapel. The first principal
was Rev. N. Z. Graves, a Presbyterian preacher from
Vermont. Mr. Julius Wilcox, who was Mrs. Graves's
brother, was his assistant, and afterward became his
associate. These men were fine scholars and success-
ful instructors, and the school became prosperous im-
mediately. In 1846 Hon. Daniel Turner, who had
been a Congressman for a short time, was elected prin-
cipal. He was a man of great ability and fine reputa-
tion; his wife was a daughter of Francis Scott Key,
the author of " The Star Spangled Banner."^ Under
the management of these principals and their assist-
ants the school rapidly increased in numbers.
In 1856 Mr. Turner received a fine offer to go to
California, and gave up the institution to a company
of citizens of Warren County. These men were mem-
bers of the Methodist Church South, and immediately
obtained a charter and changed the name to Warren-
ton Female College, and from this time the school was
a Methodist institution.
After the reorganization, in 18.^6, Rev. Thomas S.
Campbell, a member of the North Carolina Conference,
became president. He collected a large and strong
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 237
faculty, among whom was Edwin E. Parham, M. A.,
who two years afterward became president. Profes-
sor Parham kept the school open most of the
time during the War between the States, but left in
The rivalry between the two schools Warrenton
College and Warrenton Collegiate Institute was
beneficial to both schools. For several years after the
reorganization there were more than one hundred
pupils attending Warrenton College.
After the buildings of Greensboro College were
burned, in 1863, Dr. Jones moved his school to Kittrel,
then to Louisburg, and about 1870 to Warrenton, and
occupied the buildings of the Warrenton College.
After Dr. Jones returned to Greensboro, in 1873, the
school was closed and never reopened as a college.
Mrs. Mary Williams and Miss Lucy Hawkins have
been conducting a private school of high grade in the
buildings for a number of years.
The course of study of Warrenton College was
about the same as that of Edgeworth Seminary and
that of Greensboro College.
Warrenton Female Collegiate Institute, Warrenton,
This school was always a private school. It was
opened in 1846 by Messrs. Graves and Wilcox, who
had been principal and associate principal of Warren-
ton Academy. Luke Graves, A. M., became an asso-
ciate principal with his brother and Mr. Wilcox about
1848; in 1853 Edwin L. Barrett took his place, and
the firm name became Graves, Wilcox & Com-
pany. In 1859 Mr. Wilcox bought the interest of Mr.
Graves; he continued as principal until his death in
From that time until 1880, when the last exercises
of the Collegiate Institute were held, it was under the
management of Mrs. Wilcox. For a number of years
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
the attendance was 125 girls each year. Its pupils
are scattered over the whole South, but most of them
are to be found in Virginia and North Carolina. Its
diploma graduates number 135, and the gold medal
The course of study required four years for com-
pletion, and was arranged as first, second, junior, and
senior years. The course for diploma was : First
class reading, spelling, geography, arithmetic (Emer-
son's First Part), history of the United States, natural
history. Second class Arithmetic (Davies'), geog-
raphy, penmanship, English grammar, history of the
United States, spelling, French, composition, reading,
moral lessons. Junior class Arithmetic, algebra
(Davies'), French, Latin, Greek, rhetoric, botany,
natural philosophy, composition, chemistry, reading.
Senior class Intellectual philosophy (Abercrombie's),
logic, languages, astronomy, elements of criticism,
moral philosophy, evidences of Christianity, geology,
anatomy, physiology, geometry. There was also a
course for graduation with gold medals, and a some-
what extensive course in music, drawing, painting, and
fancy work as extras. The cost of board, lights, fuel,
washing and tuition in the regular department was
about eighty-five dollars per session of five months.
The expense of the extras about the same as in Edge-
worth Seminary, and other schools for girls of the
same grade at that time.
St. Mary's School, Raleigh, North Carolina, 1842-
St. Mary's School was founded in May, 1842, by
the Rev. Albert Smedes, D. D. Desiring to move
South in search of a milder climate, he consulted with
Bishop Ives and decided to take charge of a diocesan
school for girls and to locate it in Raleigh. For thirty-
six years Dr. Smedes was rector and principal, allow-
ing nothing to interrupt the work he had undertaken.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 239
During the War between the States St. Mary's was a
refuge for those who were driven from their homes.
It is a tradition, of which all her daughters are proud,
that all through those years of struggle St. Mary's
doors were open, sheltering at one time the family of
the beloved President of the Confederacy.
On the 25th of April, 1877, the venerated founder of
St. Mary's was called to his rest, leaving to his son,
Rev. Bennett Smedes the school for which he had so
long and faithfully labored. This trust was consid-
ered a sacred one, and for twenty-two years Dr.
Smedes, sparing neither expense nor pains, gave his
every energy to the work.
In May, 1897, Dr. Smedes proposed to the Diocese
of North Carolina, at its annual convention, that the
church take charge of the school which had been the
lifework of his distinguished father, as of his own.
This was done, the church purchasing the property
from the heirs of Mr. Paul Cameron, from whom until
then it had been rented. In the fall of 1897 a charter
was granted by the General Assembly of North Caro-
lina (Chapter 86, Private Laws of 1897), and after-
ward amended, incorporating the trustees of St. Mary's
School, consisting of the Bishops of the Dioceses with-
in the States of North and South Carolina, and clerical
and lay trustees from each.
The charter provides (section 8) : " That the fac-
ulty of said school, with the advice and consent of
the board of trustees, shall have power to confer all
such degrees and marks of distinction as are usually
conferred by colleges and universities." This dis-
position of St. Mary's had long been the wish of Dr.
Smedes. Its organization as the school of the church
completed, Dr. Smedes continued as rector for a year
and a half, and on February 22, 1899, entered into
From its organization until 1897 the school was a
preparatory school, and for a number of years it was
correlated with Vassar. The course of study was ar-
240 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
ranged for five years, but if a pupil desired to add " ac-
complishments," as music and art were considered, a
longer time was required. Dr. Smedes thought a
pupil could not pursue at one time, with advantage,
more than four subjects of an advanced grade. A
four-year course in Latin was required to the attain-
ment of a diploma, but proficiency in modern lan-
guages was accepted as a substitute for an advanced
course in Latin.
The Church Catechism, Bible history, the Christian
year as illustrated by the Prayer-book, and ecclesiasti-
cal history, form a part of the regular course of study.
The school has always offered good facilities for the
study of music and art, and these have been en-
larged and extended to meet the demand of the
The main building is of brick, three and a half
stories high, and is connected with two " rock houses "
each two stories high, by covered corridors. The
other buildings are the art building, the chapel, the
infirmary, and the rectory. The chapel is a beautiful
Gothic structure, designed by Upjohn, and is furnished
with a pipe organ of two manuals and sixteen stops,
the " in memoriam " gift of Mrs. Bennett Smedes.
It is devoted exclusively to religious purposes. The
services of the church are celebrated there on week
days as well as on Sundays.
In May, 1900, the College was established on an
equal standard with other colleges for women in the
In addition to the preparatory school and the col-
lege, St. Mary's offers instruction in the schools of
music, art, elocution, physical culture, and business.
A kindergarten has been established in a separate build-
ing but under the same management. Thus St. Mary's
offers opportunity for study in all the departments of
knowledge usually pursued in schools for girls, and
under the present management bids fair to attain suc-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 244
Asheville Female College, Asheville, Buncombe
County, North Carolina, 1842-1908
Some time prior to 1842 the Asheville Female
Seminary was established. Its principals were John
Dickson, M. D., and Rev. Erasmus Rowley, D. D.
Under their management it was a very efficient school.
Some time between 1842 and 1866 it became the prop-
erty of the Holston Conference, its name was changed
to Asheville Female College, and a new charter was
In 1866 the property passed over to a joint stock
company, composed for the most part of Asheville
citizens. When it became the property of the stock
company Dr. James S. Kennedy was elected presi-
dent, and held the position for about ten years. Then
Rev. J. R. Long served as presiding officer for two
years. From 1878 to 1879 the institution was sus-
In September, 1879, Rev. James Atkins, A.M.,
D. D., t assumed control and was at its head for ten
years. Rev. S. N. Barker, of Texas, was president
1889-1890; and B. E. Atkins, A. M., 1890-1893. In
the fall of 1893 Dr. James Atkins, who had been presi-
dent of Emory and Henry College, Virginia, for four
years, returned, and had control until the summer of
1896, when he was elected Sunday-school Editor of the
Methodist Episcopal Church South. During the year
1896-1897 it was kept by Mrs. James Atkins. In
1897 the property was sold to Archibald A. Jones,
who had been president of Central Female College,
Lexington, Missouri, from 1889 to 1897.
In 1897 the present building was erected by Dr.
Atkins, at a cost of $30,000. During the eighteen
years with which he was connected with the school,
as president of the faculty or of the trustees, it had
an annual enrollment of about one hundred and fifty,
and the pupils were from almost every Southern State,
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
and from Massachusetts, Ohio, Illinois, and Nebraska.
The course of study was equally as high as that of
any of the schools for girls in the State.
Mr. Jones has enlarged the faculty, extended the
curriculum, and increased the expense to a consider-
The courses advertised in English, Latin, Greek,
French, German, mathematics, physics, chemistry, ge-
ology philosophy, and history are as extensive as those
given by any of the higher institutions for men in
the State. Music, art, and elocution are extras, and
cost from $15 to $45.
(This sketch is condensed from a sketch of the
school in " Church and Private Schools of North Caro-
lina," by Charles Lee Raper.)
The Fayetteville Female Seminary, Fayetteville,
North Carolina, 1854
This Seminary was established by a company of
stockholders, the majority of whom were citizens of
Fayetteville. The corner-stone was laid June 9, 1854.
Rev. W. E. Pell, a prominent minister of the Metho-
dist Episcopal Church South, was the first president.
He was succeeded by Mr. W. K. Blake, who was suc-
ceeded by Mr. Thomas Hooper, who retained the po-
sition until the school was closed by the War be-
tween the States.
This school held the same rank as other schools for
girls established during this period, though its patron-
age was never large nor its influence never great.
Since its close as a college the building has been used
for many and various purposes. It is now used by
Col. T. J. Drewry for his military academy.
Thomasville Female College, 1849-1893
This was a private school from the beginning. Its
principals were members of different churches. It was
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 343
opened in 1849 by Mrs. Charles Mock, as a preparatory
school for Greensboro College. She sold out. to Dr.
Charles Force Deems, September, 1852. He changed
the name from Sylva Grove Female Seminary to Glen
Anna Seminary, in honor of his wife. Glen Anna
Seminary was opened January, 1853, an d in 1855 Dr.
Deems secured a regular charter.
Mr. John W. Thomas became interested in the
school, and erected a large building for its accommo-
dation, at a cost of $1,200. In 1858 the school was
in its new quarters under the management of Mr.
Thomas, though he did not teach himself. He em-
ployed a large, well-trained faculty. The school flour-
ished under his management. In 1860 there were 150
pupils, and Mr. Thomas, by prudent and discreet man-
agement, succeeded in keeping the school in operation
during the war. In 1867 its name was again changed,
and it was called Thomasville College. Mr. Thomas
retained the management until his death in 1873, when
the school was closed for a short time, but reopened
in 1874, by Prof. H. W. Reinhart, who purchased the
Professor Reinhart was sole proprietor until 1884,
when Rev. J. N. Stallings bought a half interest and
became co-principal. Soon after this transaction the
school began to decline, and in 1889 the whole plant,
faculty, and students were transferred to High Point.
The school continued to decline until it was closed in
1893. A new charter was secured March n, 1889,
and the name changed to High Point Female College.
This school was in active operation for fifty-four
years, and had a fairly successful career. During
one-half of this time the faculty numbered twelve or
more trained teachers.
The curriculum was the same and the facilities for
studying music, art, and fancy work the same as those
offered by other schools for girls of the same period.
244 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Floral College, Robe son County, North Carolina,
Floral College was located about four miles from
Maxton, Robeson County, North Carolina. It was
chartered in 1847, and was in successful operation
forty years. The buildings one large building, a
steward's hall, and two smaller buildings were lo-
cated in a large grove. Centre Presbyterian Church
was also situated in the same grove, and its pastor,
Rev. John R. Mclntosh, was one of the first presi-
dents of the College. For a short time during the War
between the States the school was closed, but was
reopened in 1865 under supervision of Rev. Luther
McKinnon, D. D.
The College had six presidents; two before it was
closed by the War between the States and four after
its reopening in 1865.
Several teachers succeeded these presidents, each
of whom had control for a short time. The buildings
are still used for school purposes, but the school has
become a county school sustained by local patronage.
The school closed its effective work in 1887. At that
time the original incorporators were all dead and the
institution was heavily in debt.
Prior to the War between the States it had a yearly
attendance of one hundred or more pupils. It was
always under Presbyterian control, and its faculty was
composed of men and women well prepared to teach.
Its curriculum was the same as that of other schools
of the same rank, and has been given under Edge-
Chowan Baptist Female Institute, 1848-1908
Murfreesboro has been the center of a large Baptist
community for a long time, and the Baptists here,
as elsewhere, have always been active in the way of
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH
In 1848 the Chowan and Portsmouth Associations
decided to establish a school for the higher education
of young women. A company was formed, land pur-
chased, and a house erected, at a cost of $1,225. The
school opened in October, 1848, with Rev. A. Mc-
Dowell, D. D., principal. He remained at the head
for a short time only, and was succeeded by Rev.
M. R. Forey, who held the position until August,
Its prosperity was great, and it soon became neces-
sary to have more room, and a large brick building
was erected in 1852.
Rev. William Hooper, D. D., LL. D., was presi-
dent from 1853 to 1862, when Mr. McDowell, the
first president, returned and served until his death in
1 88 1. In 1897, John C. Scarborough, A. B., ex-Su-
perintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina.
Throughout the fifty-eight years of its existence the
Institute has never been closed. During this time it
has sent out about five hundred graduates. For a
long time the faculty has numbered ten. The course
of instruction is about the same as that of Greensboro
College and other schools of that grade in the State.
Carolina Pewwle College, Ansonville, North Carolina,
This school was established at Ansonville in 1849,
by a joint stock company. The buildings, costing
$20,000, were erected in 1850, a charter was obtained
the same year, and the school was formally opened in
1851. It was very prosperous. The yearly attendance
was two hundred until the school was closed in 1862.
It was reopened in 1864, an d was closed as a college
in 1868. Since that time the buildings have been used
for a high school. Prof. R. B. Clarke is the present
principal. The College had four presidents : Rev. Alex-
ander B. Smith, of Anson County, 1851 to 1852; Rev.
246 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Tracy R. Walsh, 1852 to 1862; Rev. J. R. Griffith
of Virginia, 1864 to 1866; Professor James E. Blink-
inship, 1866 to 1868.
The curriculum was the same as Edgeworth and
other colleges for women of that period.
Oxford Female Seminary, 1851-1908
Another Baptist college was opened in Oxford, in
1851. At the Baptist State Convention of 1849 tne
following report was made : " The necessity of estab-
lishing a female college for the State, in which suit-
able testimonial of a high grade of scholarship will be
awarded, is seriously entertained by many of our
brethren and is an object worthy of their united and
zealous efforts." The Convention of 1850 was as-
sured by the town of Oxford of at least $10,000, if
the college would be located there. By this same con-
vention the school was located, and trustees appointed,
and Elder J. J. Jones selected as agent. He secured
a charter in March, 1851. Rev. Samuel Wait, D. D.,
was elected president in April, 1851, and the school
began July 21, the same year.
At the end of a year the school was reported $9,000
in debt. The trustees appointed four agents, succes-
sively, who did not collect enough to pay their own
salaries. Then Mr. Wait tried to collect, with no bet-
ter success. In 1857 Mr. Mills offered $5,000 for the
property and it was accepted.
From this time Mr. Mills took charge of the finances
and J. H. Phillips, Rev. R. H. Marsh, Dr. R. H.
Lewis and others had charge of the literary work.
In 1880 Mr. Hobgood bought the property, and since
that time it has been a private school under the name
of Oxford Seminary. The property is worth $20,000.
The faculty consists of ten members. Average annual
enrollment is one hundred and twenty. The curricu-
lum is the same as Greensboro College,
(The material of this sketch was obtained from Ra-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 247
per's " Church and Private Schools of North Caro-
Davenport College, 1858
About 1850 the Presbytery of Concord obtained a
subscription of $10,000 for a girls' college, and soon
determined to locate their school at Statesville. In
1853 the Methodists began to investigate the sub-
ject, and at the Centre Camp Meeting in 1855 raised
a subscription of $12,000 for a school.
Col. William Davenport was one of the most liberal
subscribers, and for him the school was named. With
the money subscribed they erected a brick building
and bought sixteen acres of land, and furniture. In
1857 the trustees offered the whole property to the
South Carolina Conference. The offer was accepted
and Rev. H. M. Mood elected president.
In July, 1858, the school was opened under the
name of Davenport College. Only fifty-six pupils were
matriculated the first year. However, Mr. Mood's ad-
ministration of four years was very successful. He
resigned in 1862, and was succeeded by Rev. R. N.
Price, who remained one year and was succeeded by
Rev. A. G. Stacy. When Stoneman's army invaded
that part of the country, Mr. Stacy took his school
into North Carolina. The army occupied the building
for two days, pillaged and despoiled the library and
furniture, and left little but the naked buildings. After
peace came it was reorganized, and has had various de-
grees of success and many changes. In 1870 the
General Conference transferred that section of the
State from the South Carolina to the North Carolina
Conference. It was expected that the new Conference
would help support the school, but this expectation was
The buildings have been consumed by fire, and re-
built. Several principals have presided over its for-
tunes. It has ceased to be a boarding-school and be-
MS HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
The average enrollment is about eighty. The last
principal is Mr. Minick, who took charge in 1889, and
has kept the school in a fairly prosperous state ever
Louisburg Female College, 1826-1908
In 1826 the Louisburg Academy was chartered.
This school was probably merged into an institute dur-
ing the thirties, and continued as a small school until
1857, when the Louisburg College was chartered. Mr.
A. M. Ray was in charge from 1845 to l &$6- His
building was small until the present commodious build-
ing was erected in 1855-57. Mr. J. P. Nelson was
president - 1857-58; Columbus Andrews, 1858-61;
James Southgate, 1861-65. It was closed by the war
and not reopened until Dr. T. M. Jones removed
Greensboro Female College to the building in Janu-
ary, 1866. Dr. Jones had about two hundred boarders,
the largest number the institution ever had. In June,
1869, he went to Warrenton, and Rev. F. L. Reid,
D. D., was president until 1878. From that time until
1889 the college was closed, and a high school was
taught in the building. Mr. S. D. Bagley reopened it
as a college in 1889, and kept it five years. Then Rev.
J. A. Green was president 1894-1896, and Mathew S.
Davis from 1896 to the present time.
In theory the College belongs to a stock company
of Louisburg, but really it belongs to Mr. Washington
Duke by virtue of money loaned by him to the school.
When Mr. Green was in charge it decreased in
numbers and popularity, but Mr. Davis and his daugh-
ters have increased the patronage very much.
Statesville Female College, 1857-1908
In 1850 the Concord Presbytery contemplated es-
tablishing a college for girls at Lenoir, but decided to
locate it at Statesville instead. The College was es-
tablished in 1857, under whose management does
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 249
not appear. During the War between the States
Rev. J. M. M. Caldwell took charge, and continued
until he went to Greensboro in 1868. Then Rev. E.
F. Rockwell was president until 1872, then Mrs. Eliza-
beth N. Grant and Miss Margaret E. Mitchell, daugh-
ters of Prof. Elisha Mitchell of the University of
North Carolina, took charge until 1884. It was dur-
ing this period that the school made its reputation.
In 1885 Miss Fannie Everett assumed control, and
maintained its reputation until she retired in 1894.
From that time until 1896 the school was closed. In
the fall of 1896 John B. Burwell, A. M., became
president. The College has again begun to manifest
life and influence. Mr. Burwell has a faculty of nine
and offers a course suited to the training of girls, at
very low terms. The property is worth $30,000.
Mr. Burwell has had the largest experience in edu-
cating girls of any living North Carolinian. He was
co-principal of the Charlotte Female Institute for ten
years and principal of Peace Institute for eighteen
(This sketch is also based on Raper's " Church and
Private Schools of North Carolina." These sketches
are not what I hoped to make them, but it is the best
I could do with the material obtainable. I bought all
the books I could find bearing on the subject and wrote
many letters, got catalogues, and got the assistance
of Mrs, DeBernier Wills, who searched old newspa-
pers, and had access to private letters and records, still
I could not obtain just what I wished to make these
sketches interesting and profitable.)
Wesleyan Female College, Murfreesboro, North
Wesleyan College was opened in 1853. It was a
very flourishing institution until it was burned August
5, 1877. During this period as many as 1,500 stu-
dents matriculated. It was rebuilt in 1881, and Prof.
250 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
E. E. Parham was president for eleven years. It
was again destroyed by fire, May 27, 1893, and has
not been rebuilt. The property belonged to the Metho-
dist Episcopal Church South, and most of the presi-
dents were members of the North Carolina Conference.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 251
Early Schools in South Carolina
FAILING to find any record of the early schools for
girls in Charleston, a request for such information was
inserted in the Keystone, and in response to this re-
quest the following sketch was sent :
SOME OF CHARLESTON'S MOST NOTED SCHOOLS
" In glancing over the past and its many changes in
Charleston, there is, perhaps, no more interesting field
than that of the schools in which the last two or three
generations of girls have been trained. Seventy or
eighty years ago the rival schools were those of
Madame Talvanne and Miss Datey. Madame Tal-
vanne kept school in the house on Legare street which
is now occupied by Judge Simoton; and Miss Datey
first opened school on Glebe street, in the large square
brick house known to older generations as the * Bish-
op's Residence/ it having been the home of the Co-
lonial bishops, and part of the glebe assigned to St.
Philip's Church, which still owns it. There was quite
a rivalry between these two schools, each, as is always
the case, claiming superiority for the school to which
she was attached. Both, it is certain, were of recog-
" Of Madame Talvanne's personal history, beyond
that she was a woman of marked characteristics and
culture, I know but little, therefore, may not be able
to say as much as should be said of her. Of Miss
Datey there was almost a romantic side which was
pathetic. With her family, driven from St. Domingo
in one of the many insurrections to which that island
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
has been subject, after many wanderings, bereft of
all, they were stranded in Charleston, without money
and without friends. There was nothing open to this
lady but menial service, which she most gladly ac-
cepted as affording food and shelter. She was em-
ployed in the Trapier family at Georgetown, and ac-
cepted her lot with courage and endurance; fortu-
nately it did not last long. Mrs. Trapier chanced one
day to see the new * help ' bending over the ironing-
table, and observing the beauty of her hands and the
turn of her wrists, promptly decided that this woman
was not in her proper sphere. She sent for her, and
after some questioning promoted her to the position
of governess, which she filled for many years, until
under the patronage of the Trapiers and other wealthy
families, who desired their daughters to have the bene-
fit of instruction from this highly cultured woman,
she removed to Charleston, and occupied first the house
on Glebe street, and afterward that known as No. 31
Legare street, now the residence of Hon. A. T. Smythe.
" Miss Datey must have been a woman of rare
character, combining firmness and gentleness in a
marked degree. Her pupils always spoke of her with
deepest affection and respect. She was a devout fol-
lower of the Roman Church, and while she made no
effort to influence the belief of her pupils, she so im-
pressed them with her earnest efforts to live worthy of
her own faith, that they would often, in after years,
when hearing aspersions against the creed of the Ro-
man Church, say, ' It isn't so ; Miss Datey would never
have believed it/ About sixty-five years ago this
saintly woman closed her school, and took the vows of
a nun in one of the many orders of her church, and
thus passed from Charleston forever.
" The Misses Murden, ladies whose value as educa-
tors has always been recognized in Charleston, were
pupils of Madame Talvanne. Every thinking girl who
attended the school kept by these ladies has always
felt the value of the ' groundings ' she then received,
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 255
particularly in arithmetic, and the same may be said of
their pupils and successors of to-day the Misses Sass.
" Fifty years ago the most flourishing school in
Charleston was that of Madame DuPre, who was aided
by her accomplished daughter, Madame Bonnetheau.
This school was kept at the corner of East Bay and
Lauriens streets. It was generally considered an ad-
vanced finishing-school, and would receive more than
one hundred boarding pupils. Many from adjoining
States availed themselves of its advantages.
" The rival of this school was that of the Misses
Bates, those cultivated ladies who kept school on
Church street, beloved and revered by all their pupils.
' Honor ' was the only discipline used.
" There was a marked change in the style of schools
when, about 1854, under the patronage of the Hon.
James L. Petigru, Madame R. A. Togno opened her
French and English school on Tradd street. This was
considered the most select school of its day. Applica-
tion for entrance had to be made one year in advance,
for the number of pupils was strictly limited. French
was the language of the school, and woe be to the
girl who was heard using her English tongue save in
the English classes, during school hours. The poor,
shy, trembling girls, who had never been forced to
rely upon French as a means of expression, felt some-
what as Robinson Crusoe must have felt on his desert
island. ' Madame, puis m'en aller ? ' was probably the
first sentence they found courage to utter. This school
was not dismissed as a whole, but four or five, or
perhaps a class, was dismissed at the same time, hence
the necessity for the request.
'' There were no desks in use ; the girls sat in classes
on long benches. A table in the center of the room was
used when they needed to write. Many were the in-
novations supposed to have been introduced by
Madame Togno, and they were the cause of much
criticism. In the first place, the vacation months had
been heretofore April and December, as most con-
254 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
venient to the planters' families. Madame gave no
vacation in these months, and substituted a vacation
from July to October a custom now in universal
" Over the door of the Tradd street house was the
sign, ' Pensionat des Demoiselles,' which an old gen-
tleman in the neighborhood interpreted to mean that
Madame Togno was the French consul, and called on
her for advice as such. When she removed to Meet-
ing street, next to South Carolina Hall, the sign was
not put up. Here the school was carried on most
successfully until the fall of Fort Walker, in 1861,
when Madame removed to Barhamville, near Colum-
bia, taking many of her pupils with her. She re-
mained here a year or two until the death of her
youngest daughter, when she closed her school and
went through the lines to New York.
" She by no means forgot her friends at the South,
many of whom, after the war, received substantial
proof of her affection for them.
" A small woman, of most erect carriage, losing not
a quarter of an inch of her height, full of nervous
energy, Madame never took a seat, but walked up and
down in front of her classes during recitation, oc-
casionally stamping her small foot encased in black
bottines, to give emphasis to her utterances. Notice of
Madame Togno's school would not be complete with-
out mention of that woman so gifted herself, who be-
yond comparison was enabled to impart her knowl-
edge to her pupils in a most attractive form Mrs.
Elizabeth Wotton teaching them so to drink of the
' Pierian Spring ' that the desire often was to ' drink
deep or not at all.' A most ardent daughter of the
South, a firm believer in States' rights, in her eyes
South Carolina could do no wrong. If any of her
pupils have been lukewarm in their allegiance to the
South, the fault does not lie at her door. She did
her utmost to teach them what was to her view the
only right view that could be taken.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 255
" About the time of Madame Togno's advent in
Charleston, under the auspices of C. G. Memminger,
Jefferson Bennett, and others, Mr. F. S. Sawyer, with
a full corps of teachers, was brought from the North
to establish the normal, or public-school system, which
still holds sway in Charleston.
" Madame Petit, for some years prior to the war,
conducted a very flourishing school, her methods be-
ing somewhat that of Madame Togno. They may be
considered the rivals of their day.
" After the war the two Misses Bates, the only
remaining members of a large family, returned to
Charleston and re-opened their school, but owing to
the death of one, and the advancing years of the
elder of the sisters, it did not last long. Then, for a
time, Mrs. Hobson Pinckney, a gentlewoman in every
sense of the word, divided with Miss Winston the
honor of conducting the two best schools in Charles-
" The college girl of to-day has perhaps many ad-
vantages over her mother, but in Charleston the stand-
ard of study has always been a high one, which is
evidenced by the gentle, refined old ladies we see all
around us, who unfortunately are so fast passing away
that they will soon be only a cherished memory, leaving
for us an example worthy of imitation of what a high-
bred woman should be. Had their education not been
of a high grade they would not have been the women
they are. Brought up in the homes of refinement, they
acquired that tact and 'savoir-faire' that only at-
trition can give. Whence but from this training has
come that wonderful endurance which has so uncom-
plainingly borne the many untold privations brought
about by the misfortunes of our country? Endurance
which teaches us that the story of the Spartan boy
and the fox may be an allegory.
"M. B. W."
(This sketch is given as written by M. B. W., who
256 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
kindly sent it in answer to an advertisement for in-
formation concerning early schools in South Carolina.)
Presbyterian Seminary, Anderson, South Carolina,
Certainly as early as 1835, and perhaps earlier, the
Presbyterian Synod of South Carolina established a
school for girls at Anderson, known as the Presby-
terian School. The first principal of the school of
whom there is any record was a Mr. Leverett; his
successors were Mr. McElroy, Mr. Pressley, and Mr.
Jones. These principals were assisted by competent
teachers. The curriculum embraced the usual Eng-
lish studies, and French, music, painting, drawing, and
For several years no diplomas were given, but about
1840 the charter was amended and the power to con-
fer degrees granted. This school was very popular,
girls from every part of the State attended it; but as
there was no boarding-department, they boarded with
the citizens. The school was closed by the War be-
tween the States.
(Information in this sketch was obtained from a
letter written by Mrs. Lulah Ayer Vandiver of An-
derson, South Carolina.)
The Johnston Female University, Anderson, South
About 1850 there was established in Anderson,
South Carolina, a school for girls quite famous in its
day in upper Carolina. This school was known as The
Johnston Female University, and was endowed by
the Baptists of South Carolina. Dr. Wm. B. Johnston
was chancellor from its inception until it was broken
up by the War between the States. Girls from all
parts of the State attended this school, and there were
several boarding-houses erected for the exclusive use
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 257
of these students. The degrees A. B. and A. M. were
conferred. Judging from some women I know who
were educated at this school, it must have been a
school of high grade.
(Written by Mrs. Lulah Ayer Vandiver.)
Greenville Female College, Greenville, South Carolina,
Greenville is situated in the northwestern part of
South Carolina, in the Piedmont section of the Blue
Ridge Mountains. Its pleasant and healthful climate
renders it a suitable location for a school.
Greenville College was founded in 1854. It is the
property of the State Baptist Convention of South
Carolina. The affairs are managed by a board of
trustees appointed by the Convention to manage this
college and Furman University. The board of trus-
tees appoints an executor for the management of the
affairs of these institutions. Its officers and teachers
all receive stipulated salaries, so that no one has
any personal interest in the pecuniary profits arising
from its management. Its object is not to make money,
but to offer its patrons the best possible educational
advantages. Should any profit arise from enlarged
attendance it would be promptly applied to the im-
provement and enlargement of the institution.
The buildings are on a quiet, retired, and beauti-
ful elevation in the northwestern portion of the city.
There are three large three-story brick buildings con-
nected by three-story brick connections. The build-
ings have all modern conveniences.
The collegiate course is divided into the following
schools : I. School of English and English Literature ;
II. School of Ancient Languages; III. School of
Modern Languages; IV. School of Mathematics; V.
School of Physical Sciences; VI. School of History;
VII. School of Political Sciences; VIII. School of
Mental and Moral Sciences and Theistic Studies ; IX.
258 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
School of Pedagogics ; X. School of Bible Study ; XL
Conservatory of Music; XII. School of Art; XIII.
School of Expression and Physical Culture; XIV.
Business Department. The fourteen schools are sepa-
rate and distinct, each in charge of a competent teacher
with necessary assistants. Pupils may become candi-
dates for graduation in any one or all of these schools,
though it is hardly possible to pursue successfully more
than five at the same time.
Primary and kindergarten departments are under
the general supervision of the College, but entirely
separated from the other departments. The Kindergar-
ten Normal Course is offered for the benefit of those
interested in child study and desiring to become trained
kindergartners. Regular diplomas will be given to
those finishing the course required for graduation.
Columbia College for Girls, Columbia, South Carolina,
In 1852 the South Carolina Conference of the
Methodist Episcopal Church South appointed a com-
mittee to receive " any offers that may be made on
the subject of establishing a college for girls in some
central or suitable place." The result was the es-
tablishment of two such colleges one at Spartan-
burg, the other in Columbia. The work of erecting
the building of the Columbia College for Girls began
in January, 1856, and the first session began on the
first Wednesday of October, 1859, under the presi-
dency of Rev. Whiteford M. Srnith, D. D. The col-
lege received immediately a liberal patronage. Dur-
ing its second session 160 students matriculated. In
1863 tne institution was forced to close, on account
of war and debt, and for several years the building
was occupied as a hotel. In 1873, under the. presi-
dency of Rev. Samuel B. Jones, D. D., the College was
again opened to the daughters of Carolina.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 259
The original building, an excellent example of the
Italian Renaissance architecture, was enlarged in 1878.
In 1895, under the presidency of Rev. J. A. Rice,
D. D., the building was again overhauled, and fitted
with modern heating and sanitary equipments, and the
Annex, a large, commodious building, was erected on
the eastern campus.
The following have occupied the office of president :
Rev. Whiteford Smith, D. D., 1859-60; Rev. William
Martin, 1 860-6 1 ; Rev. H. M. Mood, 1861-64; Rev. S.
B. Jones, D. D., 1873-76; Hon. J. L. Jones, Ph.D.,
1876-81; Rev. O. A. Darby, D. D., 1881-90; Rev. S.
B. Jones, D. D., 1890-94; Rev. John A. Rice, A. M.,
D. D., 1894-1900; Rev. W. W. Daniel, D. D., 1900
to the present day.
" The great aim of the College is to offer to young-
women facilities and opportunities for broad and deep
culture, careful and exact training and thorough edu-
cation, equal to the best." It has always been the
policy of the College to raise its standard from time to
time, as much as the work done in the preparatory
schools would justify. Under the presidency of Dr.
John A. Rice the requirements for entrance and gradu-
ation came abreast with those of the leading colleges
for men in the State.
The faculty is composed of thirteen thoroughly
trained teachers. The course of study is carefully
graded and arranged on the university plan, allowing
girls to enter the class for which they are prepared, as
far as possible, in every department. As at present
arranged there are thirteen departments of instruction,
viz. : English language and literature, modern lan-
guages and literature, ancient languages and literature,
English Bible, art, music, elocution, physical culture,
In addition to the usual advantages, Columbia Col-
lege offers some special advantages. It is located at
the seat of the legislative, judicial, and executive de-
partments of the State, thus affording object-lessons in
260 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
the science of government. Columbia is visited by dis-
tinguished lecturers, tourists, etc. ; thus the pupils are
brought in touch with the leading men and measures of
the day. The pupils have access to several large li-
braries, in addition to the College library and well-
selected reading-table especially that of the South
Carolina College, containing 30,000 volumes. The so-
cial advantages are unsurpassed in the State. The
College is near all the leading churches in the city, and
is kept in touch with spiritual forces at work. The
Columbia Lyceum brings to the city lecturers of na-
tional renown and musicians of reputation. The de-
grees conferred are B. A. and B. S.
(This sketch was compiled from letters and cata-
Dr. Marks and the Barhamville School.
" In 1785 the rice and indigo planters of South Caro-
lina invited Mr. Humphrey Marks, together with a syn-
dicate of wealthy men, to come to South Carolina to
invest money in mortgages on plantations along the
seaboard. Mr. Humphrey Marks had three sons
Alexander, who removed early in the nineteenth cen-
tury to Louisiana and settled in Avoyelles parish and
gave his name to its shire town or county-seat, Marks-
ville, on the Red River; the youngest son, Frederic,
always lived in Columbia; the other son, Dr. Elias
Marks, was born in Charleston, December 2, 1790, and
died in Washington, D. C, 1886.
" Dr. Marks early became a Christian, having been
converted by an old negro nurse. Some accounts tell
us that he was a Methodist, while others hold he was
an Episcopalian. He attended the public schools in
Charleston, and was graduated at the New York City
Medical College in 1815. His thesis, being distin-
guished by publication in the transactions of that Col-
lege, received special recognition of encouragement
from the celebrated Dr. Nott of that institution, and
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 261
he had every prospect of becoming a successful prac-
" After conducting a drug store a year or so he re-
turned South, and settled in the new capital, Columbia,
and opened a school for girls, called in the old phrase-
ology, ' a female academy.' Dr. Marks was an en-
thusiast, a gentleman of ingratiating address, and an
upright, pure-minded man, particularly adapted to the
education of girls. He said that knowledge consti-
tuted the essential difference between savage and civi-
lized man ; that the torch of intellect is to be kindled on
the altar of domestic affection ; that it burns intensely
and permanently only when fed by genuine piety.
" And here, he said, arose the question in what re-
spect ought the education of the female to differ from
that of the other sex ? * The education of either sex
is to be directed to the respective duties which each is
destined to perform on the great theatre of human
" He held that the right education of woman is es-
sential to the general weal ; that it is a legitimate source
of moral character and political happiness of a peo-
ple. ' Do we wish that a woman should be pious, re-
fined, and elevated ; do we desire a flexibility, strength,
and expansion of mind, essential to the every-day oc-
currence and vicissitudes of life, and yet not incom-
patible with all that is lovely and graceful in female
character? These can proceed only from an intellect
cultivated in all its parts, from an active, sustained,
and vigorous exercise of its powers, directing them to
practicable and valuable ends.' Dr. Marks held that
there were four difficulties that lay in the way of pur-
suing an efficient course of education: ' (i) The
errors in domestic education; (2) the desultory and
imperfect manner in which an academic course is pur-
sued ; (3) the desire of blending the advantages of
fashionable society with those derived from the
teacher; (4) the incapacity of the teachers themselves/
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Despite these difficulties, Dr. Marks's school was a
most successful one and he was universally beloved.
"About 1817 he married Miss Jane Barham of
New York City, and the two were principals of the
Columbia Academy, 1817 to 1820. The building was
afterward occupied by the Rev. Mr. Gladney, then by
Mr. Muller, and later by the Misses Reynolds, all of
whom kept a high school for girls. At that time the
Marks's school was principally a day school.
" About 1819 the nearness of the Congaree flats and
the prevalence of contagious fever in the late summer
months directed Dr. Marks's attention to the sandhills
north of Columbia. There about a mile and a half out,
near the old sandy road that leads to ' sandhill cracker-
dom,' he erected a building, the plans of which, we
learn from Dr. Marks's daughter, are believed to have
been drawn by Mr. Zimmerman. In 1740 this gentle-
man resided just on the eastern edge of the town, near
the spot where the Methodist college stands.
" About 1821 the first ' gable roof range ' was built.
This was taken down about 1840, and three cottages
were erected from it. Then the center range was
built and the south range, and afterward, about 1841,
the north range. This academy was constructed after
the plan of Edgeworth School in Maryland, and all
the elder people thought it was an ideal place for a girl
to get an education, ' being very healthy and away from
" Mrs. Marks was a beautiful woman, a true aid and
ally in her husband's work. She died about 1828.
The school in the Sandhills was named for their only
son, who died in early life. Dr. Marks was now ( 1829)
a widower with three children and in charge of a large
family of school girls, and although from the first he
was surrounded by competent lady teachers, it was
evident that a lady head of his household was im-
" We are told that Providence directed him to the
one woman who could fully supply this responsible
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 263
position. Mrs. Julia Warne (nee Pierpont), who was
in 1830 at the head of a large and flourishing ladies'
school at Sparta, Georgia, at Dr. Marks's request
assumed the direction of the household and studies at
Barhatnville, in 1832. This lady was born at Har-
winton, Connecticut, March 9, 1/93, and died in
Washington, D. C, June 21, 1878. She had been one
of the earliest pupils of the celebrated Emma Willard
of the Troy Seminary, New York, and was educated
by her at Middlebury, Vermont, before Mrs. Willard
moved to Troy. She was the daughter of Robert Pier-
pont, of Litchfield, Connecticut, who moved to Man-
chester, Vermont, about 1776. One of Mrs. Julia
P. Marks's sisters married the Governor of Vermont,
another became the wife of Dr. Isham, whose grandson
became a partner of Robert Lincoln, afterward United
States Minister to Great Britain, and whose son, Pier-
pont Isham, was a judge of the Supreme Court of
Vermont. John Pierpont, the poet, was a first cousin
of Mrs. Marks and resembled her greatly.
" All of her associations at the North were of the
highest distinction. We are told she was an enthu-
siastic educationist, a woman endowed with remark-
able powers of quiet, unconscious government, of deep
religious feeling, dignified what we call at the South,
and mean much when we use the term, a lady.
" From the first she was welcomed by the Hamp-
tons, the Prestons, and other prominent people of
Columbia ; the relations with the Hampton family be-
ing almost affectionate and fraternal. So with the
Taylor family, who at times occupied a lovely, breezy
country-seat on the Camden road to the east of Bar-
hamville. Judge Cheves also had a place near by, and
these two families often exchanged visits. Dr. Rey-
nolds then owned and occupied a place east of Colum-
bia, afterward purchased bv General Hampton. The
Howells were not far off. The Trezevants, the family
of Dr. Shands, rector of Trinity, Mrs. de Bruhl and
the Bryces were people with whom the Marks family
264 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
interchanged visits during the early forties. Mrs.
Warne was married to Dr. Marks in the chapel at Bar -
hamville in 1833, and continued in active service there
until June, 1861, when they gave up teaching and
leased the school to Madame Togno of Charleston. She
was succeeded as lessee by Madame Sosnowski, who
was followed by Madame Torriani, a refugee from
Charleston. From 1865 to 1867 Dr. Marks and his
family lived on the place. In the latter part of 1867
they went North, leaving the buildings in charge of a
negro janitor. February 18, 1869, tne school buildings
were destroyed by fire. It was a complete loss, as
there was no insurance.
" Dr. Marks was a most excellent educator, and the
fame of his school brought daughters of wealthy
parents from all over the South ; every State was rep-
resented. The North also took advantage of the merit
of the school and its locality. So here were educated
together the representatives of the politics so diamet-
" From the first coming of Mrs. Julia Pierpont
Marks (1832) the school became a college with colle-
giate classes and progressive, systematic methods.
The best teachers necessarily from the North were
employed and at high salaries. Between 1850 and
1 86 1 the annual outlay for teachers was from $12,000
to $14,000. There was a chaplain, who taught Chris-
tian Evidences, Paley's Moral Philosophy, Ethics,
and Butler's Analogy, besides preaching every Sun-
" Each year Dr. Marks would engage a chaplain of
a different denomination, and very often he would take
the girls in to service in the city of Columbia. A
gentleman, a graduate of a first-class college, was em-
ployed to teach the classic languages, the sciences, and
higher mathematics. There were also two lady
teachers of mathematics, geography, history, etc. Dr.
Marks lectured from his notes an hour every day, on
history. There were two foreign music teachers.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 265
teachers of painting and drawing, and also a dancing-
" Mrs. Marks organized the school into classes twice
a year, and made out an individual ' list of time/ or
schedule of studies, for each hour of the day, for each
pupil, and supervised teachers and scholars alike. She
always had more trouble with the teachers than with
the scholars. It was a home school ; each pupil when
she arrived there was put upon her honor and expected
to govern herself and report herself. The day was
divided into recitation periods of three-quarters of an
hour each, beginning at 8 A. M. and closing at 4 or 5
p. M. Students were required to attend prayers every
morning at 7.45. About 8.15 they had breakfast, fol-
lowed by an intermission of an hour, when classes were
called and continued until 11.30; then every one went
to luncheon, when soft gingerbread was served. After
luncheon recitations continued until 2 o'clock, when
every one enjoyed a good dinner. Dinner was followed
by classes until 4 or 5. Prayers were held at night
as in the morning, and the roll was called as in the
" The pupils studied in their rooms, in the halls, and
under the trees, but there was perfect discipline and
good scholastic results. The written examinations
now so much in vogue were then unknown, though
exhaustive reviews took their place. The highest
mark possible was 10.
" The girls the thoroughbred ones, and they were
mostly that kind loved Dr. and Mrs. Marks, who
loved them in return. In 1854, when a malignant dis-
ease took one life and nearly took another, these kind
preceptors scarcely slept for weeks; their rooms were
given up to the sick and their strength exhausted in
behalf of the suffering ones.
" * If one had rung the door bell/ said the late Mrs.
Sophia Reynolds, ' he would have been answered by
an elderly brown man, who would take the cards and
usher him in through a wide, carpeted hall and up a
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
broad, carpeted, winding stair, with mahogany balus-
trades. This led to the upper hall, the counterpart of
the one below, from which he would enter a large
parlor into which the morning sun shone cheerfully.
Here he would see a wood fire burning in an open fire-
place. He would hear no sound but the notes of musi-
cal instruments coming from various directions
through the great building. In a few minutes an old
gentleman, gray-haired, but brisk in his movements,
would enter, accompanied by an elderly lady. Then
the Doctor would offer to show the visitors through
the school, and after thorough inspection they would
receive an invitation to dinner. They would go down
the winding stair into a piazza 120 feet long, from
which they would enter a small door and ascend a nar-
row, dark stairway. This led into one of the upper
rooms of the two-story brick range.
" * It was a large room, near the center of which
was a fire-place surrounded by several chairs as if they
had just been occupied, for the fire was still burning.
A curtain divided the room through the middle; an-
other also ran through the middle at right angles to
the first, so the room was divided into a parlor and
three bedrooms a very pleasant arrangement. I
have also heard that the large room was divided into
four smaller ones two bedrooms and two dressing-
rooms. This room, which was lighted by six large
windows, opened into another, also lighted by six win-
dows, having deep window seats. A curtain divided
this room into two a parlor and a bedroom. Each
suite of rooms contained a parlor, because the young
ladies studied in their rooms instead of in a general
schoolroom. They always had plenty of fire, and their
apartments were carpeted and very comfortable.
" ' Leaving the brick range rooms and passing down
to the lower floors, the visitor would enter a large,
long recitation-room. They would see one girl at the
blackboard, trying to explain an apparently knotty
problem, the teacher near by keeping her and the class.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 267
some twenty girls, paying the closest attention. Pass-
ing out another door, through the long piazza, down
a few steps and through an open covered way they
would reach the laboratory. Here they found a class
of about sixteen girls, also closely attending to the
explanation, which the teacher was illustrating by ex-
" ' When the class was dismissed the girls walked
quietly out, but when they reached the covered way
they ran skipping, sliding, running, and chatting. Then
another class would take the place of those who had
just gone out, and so on through the day. At in-
tervals of three-quarters of an hour the monitress ran
along the piazza ringing the school bell, the signal for
the classes to change. For five minutes there would be
the sound of merry voices and rushing feet, then
would follow a hush, a silence to be wondered at
in a house as large and filled with so many young peo-
ple, but this was a school where work was done, good
work, thorough work, for education at Barhamville
was equivalent to practical sense with all the accom-
plishments acquired by young ladies of that era of time.
From those dear and consecrated walls, hundreds of
women went forth, types of the ladies of those days of
the long ago. Dr. Marks spared no pains, no expense,
to get good teachers wherever they could be found.
And these teachers knew how to interest young girls
in study, and Mrs. Marks knew how to make them
happy and contented/
" Sons and daughters from the same family would
be sent respectively to the South Carolina College and
Barhamville. Dr. Marks had many encounters with
the college students to prevent intercourse between the
young people. Only brothers and cousins were al-
lowed to visit the girls, and these relations were often
declared where there was no blood tie. History re-
' The young ladies were allowed to receive their
brothers and cousins on Friday evenings. Of course
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
there was always great excitement over getting ready
to receive their company, for certainly every girl had
a kinsman at the South Carolina College. They all
entertained in the parlor and sometimes in the library.
Dr. J. Marion Sims in ' The Story of My Life/ gives
an account of a serenade given to the girls at Bar-
hamville, which started in fun, but barely escaped end-
ing in tragedy.
" Notwithstanding the tone of this school was high
and exceedingly refined, this did not prevent the girls
from harmless tricks. At the table when one or more
had an unusual hungry fit she would cut a sweet po-
tato in half, eat the potato on the sly, fill the two holes
of the skin with bread, ham, etc., fit them together
and put them in her pocket ' for future reference.'
" Another bond of unity between the college life of
those days and that of the present time is ' mess-hall
biscuit ' they seem to have been always the same, for
the boys would ride around Barhamville grounds on
fleet-footed horses and throw these articles of food
with notes written on them to the girls.
" The girls had regular May-day parties. At these
they elected their queen, danced around the May-pole,
and enjoyed themselves quite as much as college girls
of the present time. Half of the girls would tie a
handkerchief on the arm and thus act the part of
" Whenever there were any very good performers
or musical companies in Columbia Dr. Marks would
get them to come out to Barhamville and play for the
young ladies. When Ole Bull, the famous violinist,
was in the city he played at the Academy before leav-
ing, and Blind Tom, the wonderful pianist, did the
" Another bond of union between the college girl
of past and present was midnight feasts.
' There was a rule that lights should be put out at
nine o'clock, but it is easy to imagine how that was
obeyed when one of the girls received a box from
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 269
home. Of course a midnight feast followed, and they
had all sorts of devices for hiding the lights. On the
first of April one girl would receive a box of old shoes,
then she would invite all of her friends to come help
open the * box from home.' When all were assembled
and the cover removed it was a great joke, and all had
a hearty laugh, hearty though smothered, and of
course each one had to take a pair of shoes, or more
likely two odd ones, as a souvenir. During these per-
formances of course they would lock the doors, but if
the monitress (one of the teachers), knocked, no mat-
ter at what hour of the night, the door must be opened.
Should she happen to come there would be a general
shoving of things under the beds, pushing into closets
and scrambling into bed with clothes on, followed by
a wonderful silence. Of course some teachers were
lenient and would overlook these things, while others
were very strict and would report the girls on every
occasion. Then next morning the culprits would have
to appear before Mrs. Marks, unless the transgression
was very serious, when Dr. Marks was appealed to.
The Doctor was decided but not harsh ; Mrs. Marks's
supervision over the girls was not severe, though she
too was positive.
" The spring was indeed a busy time at Barhamville.
Then the girls received boxes of ready-made clothing
from home, or more often, boxes of material to be
made. At that season a good seamstress or dressmaker
was employed, sometimes for months. The girls were
allowed to make purchases in Columbia, but were al-
ways accompanied by a teacher. Unless they preferred
to walk, they were driven over in one of the two car-
riages belonging to the school. Indeed, they went to no
place without being accompanied by a teacher ; not even
sketching from nature, or to the home of one of the
professors to gather grapes. Whenever they went out-
side the academy enclosures they were accompanied
by a teacher.
"When the school was at its zenith (1850) the
270 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
building consisted of a large three-story wooden build-
ing, with one long two-story brick wing, stretching
southward, all of which were painted white. There
was a large vegetable garden and a well-stocked poul-
try yard on the Barhamville farm, and much of the
food was raised there.
" There were two chapels, called the lower and the
upper chapel. The lower one was fitted up with maps
and blackboards all around the walls. Here Dr.
Marks taught history, using the maps and frequently
illustrating his lectures with drawings on the black-
board. In the upper chapel desks were placed all
around the walls, and here Mrs. Marks taught writing.
Every girl took writing lessons and learned to write
the famed * Barhamville hand/ well known and easily
recognized wherever seen.
"At that time (1850) Dr. Marks was at the head
of a corps of teachers, about eight in number, gathered
from the best sources. Professors taught music, paint-
ing, modern languages, chemistry, philosophy, mathe-
matics, and English. The pupils numbered one hun-
dred and twenty, and often many more came from
Southern homes where wealth and luxury gave ele-
gance and refinement to genial, generous Southern
" Between 1857 and 1861 the following were a few
of the members of the faculty lack of space prevents
the mention of more: Elias Marks, M. D., principal,
department of history and belles-lettres; Mrs. Marks,
writing; M. Douvilliers, French, drawing, modern lan-
guages ; Rev. Mr. Donnelly, Prof. Reynolds, Mr. Alex-
ander, Mr. Ward, chaplains at different times ; Mr. Or-
chard, music master; Madame Sosnowski, painting
and drawing; Madame Feugas, M. Strawinski, danc-
ing; M. Manget, French.
" Board and the entire course of studies, exclusive
of extra studies, which were chemistry, botany, Latin
and French languages, lessons on piano, harp, guitar,
and dancing lessons all fancy dances were taught and
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 271
very gracefully danced by the young ladies, also draw-
ing and oil painting, was $250 per collegiate year;
this charge included table board, washing, firewood,
" There were two secret societies at Barhamville ;
the most prominent of which was the * Tri-une.' The
organization was very secret, being composed of only
ten or twelve members. Of course these societies
were organized with the consent of Dr. Marks. The
badge of this society consisted of a cross and an anchor
joined in some fanciful way. Only a very few of them
are still in existence, and these few are treasured as
priceless. The graduating badge was a six pointed
star, similar in shape to the Euphradian Society badge
of the South Carolina College. At commencement
time all the relatives and lady friends of the girls
came to the graduating exercises. The graduates were
all dressed in white and each girl in turn read her
" The following young ladies were admitted to the
highest honors of the institute, June 15, 1860: Misses
Mary A. Dubose, Harriet C. Geiger, Maria L. Garling-
ton, Eliza E. Johnson, Anna E. Kirtland, Sallie D.
McCall, Elizabeth W. Verdier, Caro B. H. Yancey.
" Many famous ladies have been graduated from
this school, among whom was Miss Pamela Cunning-
ham, who conceived the idea of purchasing and pre-
serving Mount Vernon, and was known as the ' South-
ern Matron/ Barhamville also enjoys the distinction
of having been the alma mater of Miss Bulloch of
Georgia, the mother of Theodore Roosevelt.
" Attached to the institute were a well-selected li-
brary, philosophical and chemical apparatus, and a
cabinet of minerals. The laboratory, where chemistry,
philosophy, and the languages were taught, is still
standing. It was bought by the late Dr. Frank Greene,
repaired and fitted for a dwelling. The cottage on
the hill a little east of the institute was sold to Mr.
Beard. ' The Spring lot ' south of the school was
272 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
purchased by Dr. Kendall. * Rose Hill cottage/ on
the north, was sold during the War between the States
to Mr. Arthur Middleton, and he sold it, I think, to the
party who owns it. The third cottage toward Colum-
bia was sold by Dr. Marks, during the War between
the States, to a man named Gruber.
" * Barhamville ' ! How the name calls up hallowed
associations work, earnest and true, fun and frolic,
the noble, the beautiful, the generous. Some have
filled the highest walks of life, some have lived in
humbler spheres, but the principles taught will ever
exalt the name of ' Barhamville.' '
(This sketch was written by Mrs. Jean H. Wither-
spoon of Columbia, South Carolina, for The State,
published in Columbia, South Carolina. It was sent
to the author of this history by Mr. Dreher, Superin-
tendent of Public Education, South Carolina.)
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 273
First Academies in Tennessee
THE first Territorial Legislature of Tennessee as-
sembled in Knoxville, August 25, 1794, and on loth
September " a bill to establish Blount College " was
passed. The College was named for the Territorial
Governor. Co-educaton was practiced for a while, and
this is one of the rare instances of co-education in the
Southern States prior to the War between the States.
Barbara Blount, daughter of the Governor, gained
such high distinction among the young ladies that
the hill on which the College was built was named
" Barbara Hill," in her honor.
Fisk's Female Academy, at Hillam, Overton County,
was chartered September n, 1806. A "female"
academy at Knoxville was chartered in 1811, and the
Female Academy at Maysville, Blount County, was
chartered in 1813. These were all the "female"
academies that were chartered in Tennessee before
the establishment of the Nashville Academy. (Crew's
"History of Nashville.")
Nashville Female Academy
The first school established in Nashville was organ-
ized on the flag-boat of General James Robertson's
pioneer fleet, by Mrs. Ann Robertson, and perhaps
it may seem strange that any one should think of
teaching children who were hourly exposed to danger
of death from attacks of Indians, from drowning,
from tempest, and perhaps from cold or starvation;
but these stalwart backwoods people were building
for the future. This unique traveling school landed
274 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
at Big Salt Lick on Sunday, Arpil 24, 1780, after a
winter voyage of four months. Thus the city of Nash-
ville had a school before its citizens had houses, and
it is not surprising that the city became a center for
educational enterprises, and famous for its schools
and the culture of its citizens.
Other excellent schools were soon opened in the
rapidly growing town, but people desired something
better, something of a high order for their girls, and
early in the year 1816 they began to discuss the ad-
visability and the possibility of establishing an Acad-
emy for girls. The formation of a stock company was
the plan adopted. The organization of this company
was completed on July 4, 1816. The members of this
corporation were Joseph T. Ellison, James Jackson,
James Hanna, John Baird, Stephen Cantrell, Wilkins
Tannehill (resigned and John Anderson admitted in
his place), John E. Back, James Trimble, Samuel Clai-
born, Thomas Childress, Elihu S. Hall, Samuel Elam,
Thos. J. Read, John Childress, Robert Searcy, David
Irwin, James Porter, John Nichol, John P. Ewin.
Willie Barrow, Felix Grundy, George M. Deadrick,
John C. McLemore, Robert Weakley, Robert White.
In the charter immediately following, the subsequent
names, making fifty in all, complete the original stock-
holders of the Nashville Female Academy: M. C.
Dunn, Joel Lewis, John Stump, Eli Talbot, John M.
Smith, Andrew Hynes, Thomas Crutcher, Thomas
Hill, Wash. L. Hannum, Thomas H. Fletcher, James
Roane, Thos. Williamson, John Williamson, John
Harding, Alpha Kingsley, Alex Porter, Thomas Ram-
sey, Christopher Stump, David Vaughn, G. G. Wash-
ington, N. B. Tryor, Alfred Balch, George A. Bedford,
and Matthew Barrow.
So liberally did these men contribute to this enter-
prise that years later, when the money invested in the
school was returned to the descendants of the original
subscribers, $1,000 came to one family. Yet the
worldly possessions of that man did not exceed $10,-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 275
ooo ; in fact, none of these men was wealthy, but they
realized the importance of a sound education.
The school's grounds occupied a block, a little be-
low what is now Tulane Hotel, east of the old Chatta-
nooga depot, running from Church to McLemore and
to Cedar street. The lawn, with its grassy turf, shaded
by magnificent forest trees, was very beautiful.
There were three separate buildings in front, the
center one three stones, the others two stories. They
had a front of 180 feet and extended back 280 feet, and
were so arranged as to give sunlight to all the rooms.
This rambling structure was of gray brick. The door-
ways were colonial. There were no front verandas,
though at the rear, where were several large additions,
there were connecting galleries with paved courts. The
building was handsomely fitted for school purposes.
It contained a spacious chapel, a recreation hall, and
other attractive features. No expense was spared by
Dr. Elliott to make the school first class, and the build-
ing suited to this purpose. When any new feature was
presented, if he thought it would add to the cpmfort
or convenience of the pupils, he immediately adopted
it regardless of expense. It is estimated that during
the twenty years of his connection with the school he
spent $143,000 in improvements.
The first principals were Dr. Daniel Berry and Mrs.
Berry, formerly of Salem, Mass., from 1817 to 1819.
The much-beloved Rev. William Hume was principal
from the retirement of Dr. Berry until 1833, when his
death occurred from cholera. Dr. R. A. Lapsley suc-
ceeded him, and remained until 1838, when he retired
on account of ill health. Rev. W. A. Scott was next
principal, and remained until 1840, when Rev. C. D.
Elliott and Dr. R. A. Lapsley became joint principals.
Very soon Dr. Lapsley retired and Dr. Elliott became
sole principal, and so continued until the close of the
school in 1862.
In 1840 there were enrolled 198 pupils; in 1860
there were 513 students, 256 of whom were boarders.
276 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
So popular was this school and the advantages offered
so highly esteemed, that girls traveled hundreds of
miles, making the trip by stage coach, private con-
veyance, and on horseback, to enjoy the benefits to
be derived from it.
Dr. Elliott always employed the very best teachers
he could find. He imported experts from the East,
from England, from France, and from Italy. In or-
der to keep in touch with the best talent and the best
means of obtaining it, Dr. Elliott corresponded with
Count Cavour and other prominent personages abroad.
Sometimes the French and Italian women engaged
knew not a word of English. They were sent over
in care of the captain of the vessel, and forwarded
to their destination. One of the ladies thus brought
over was Madame Curso. Her daughter, Camille,
was a young girl when she arrived at the Academy,
and received her training there. She afterward
taught music in the Academy, and later achieved
celebrity as a violinist. Her first husband, a Mr. Tay-
lor, was also instructor in music at the Academy and
organist for the First Presbyterian Church.
Though much attention was paid to music, art, and
modern languages, the more solid branches were not
neglected : The standard was high, and the students
were thoroughly drilled in reading, mathematics, and
Latin. Much attention was paid to reading, and the
pupils usually became good readers. A prominent
teacher of this study was Miss Collins, a Quakeress,
who was an accomplished instructor and a charming
woman. She introduced a " phonetic " reader. Doubt-
less many of her old pupils can readily recall this
unique character, always dressed in unobtrusive gray,
and wearing her hair cropped in short ringlets.
Most prominent of all the faculty, however, from
length of service, and success, was Miss Lucy
Lanier. The name of Miss Lanier appears on the di-
plomas of both mothers and daughters in a number of
instances. One is that of Miss Emmeline Hill, after-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 277
ward Mrs. Mortimer Hamilton, in 1831, and on that
of her daughter, Mrs. Leonora Hamilton Daviess, in
1859. Miss Lanier was, in commercial phrase, an
A i teacher. She estimated her pupils according to
their ability and adapted her teaching to their mental
calibre. As an instance of her sagacity it is said that
she singled out Miss Mary Murfree as perhaps the
brightest mind she ever taught.
Miss Ann Lanier, Miss Lanier's sister, was also a
member of the faculty, and the late Miss Fannie
O'Brian, whose name is so much revered in Nashville,
was presiding teacher for a number of years. The
venerable Miss Martha O'Bryan was Dr. Elliott's pri-
vate secretary, and Mrs. O'Bryan was also connected
with the domestic department.
* In the quaint language of that time, the assistant
teachers were called officially " auxiliary tutoresses,"
and a very large number of these assistants have been
connected with the school. For many years the faculty
consisted of thirty-eight members, and during the last
few years of the " old Academy " even a larger num-
The most cordial relations existed between Dr. El-
liott and his teachers. He appreciated the nervous
strain consequent upon teaching, and had a special
row of rooms reserved for teachers. These rooms
were aloof from the girls' quarters, hence the teachers
could have rest and quiet.
Ten years were required to complete the entire
course, and many of the pupils have this record to
their credit two years in the primary department,
four for the academic, four for the collegiate depart-
ment. There were two sessions a day, from g to 12
A. M. and from 2 to 4 P. M., and holidays were rare.
There was one day's vacation at Christmas.
While the mind was studiously cultivated, the phys-
ical development was by no means neglected. The
lawn afforded a pleasant opportunity for such games
as " battledore and shuttlecock," " grace hoops," and
278 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
other games of that period, and the girls were en-
couraged to indulge in them. However, Dr. Elliott
was not satisfied with this voluntary exercise, but
deemed some systematic drill necessary, and imported
a teacher from Boston to teach calisthenics; and he
deemed dancing among the girls not promiscuous
dancing one of the best forms of physical culture, and
well suited for a school exercise.
The recreation hall was 120 feet long and 40 feet
wide, and had a gallery at one end and a platform at
the other. There was a piano, and a " dancing
piano " ; the latter ground out polkas, mazurkas, reels,
and other old-fashioned dances, by turning a crank.
In this hall the girls danced three-quarters of an hour
every evening after supper. Much stress was laid on
dignity and grace of carriage, and awkwardness was
Courtesy was demanded from every one connected
with the school, and honor was the atmosphere of the
school. A matron could not enter a pupil's door with-
out knocking and waiting for permission; correspon-
dence was sacred ; no teacher was allowed to accept a
present with a money value from a pupil, nor correct
a pupil in the presence of others. There never were
any run-away matches, nor was a breath of scandal
connected with the school.
This school was never endowed, but depended en-
tirely on tuition fees ; yet annually there were admitted
five daughters of Masons, five daughters of Odd-Fel-
lows, and all the daughters of ministers actively en-
gaged in the ministry.
Notwithstanding the discipline was very strict,
the girls were never allowed to speak to acquaintances
when they took their daily walks or attended McKen-
dree Church, or other churches, there were red-letter
days when they were released from restraint.
One of these days was in 1825, when General La-
fayette visited Nashville, and was received at the Acad-
emy; another occurred in 1846, when the girls of the
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 279
Academy made the gift of a handsome flag to the First
Regiment of Mexican Volunteers. Another grand
event was in 1851, when Jennie Lind, the " Swedish
Nightingale," gave three concerts in Nashville, under
the management of P. T. Barnum, in the new Adelphi
Theatre. The tickets were sold at $6 apiece, and the
best seats were sold at auction at $200 apiece, but ar-
rangements were made for the boarders to attend the
concert. A patriotic event was the presentation by
the school, in June, 1861, of a handsome silk flag
made by the pupils to the First Regiment of Confed-
The annual May-Day picnic was a great event, and
commencement was a grand occasion. These exer-
cises required three or four days, as each pretty maiden
was scheduled to read an original essay, a number
appearing on each programme, on the installment plan.
A list of the graduates and the titles of their essays
was recently published in the Nashville Banner, and
makes interesting reading.
The diplomas bore curious Cupid devices with curv-
ing wings in pen and ink drawings, and many are still
preserved. They were duly dated, signed, and sealed
by the faculty and trustees. The following is the quaint
form used in the inscription : " These presents shall
certify to all whom they may concern that has
completed the course of study prescribed by the in-
stitution, and that her diligence in pursuit of knowl-
edge and her uniform good conduct whilst a member
of the Academy may receive their appropriate reward,
we have granted unto and conferred upon her this
diploma, as a testimonial of our approbation of her
correct deportment and of her literary attainments."
When Fort Donelson was captured the citizens of
Nashville were dazed. Doubtless many thought the
end of time had arrived. The news was read at the
churches Sunday morning. While others were inac-
tive, Dr. Elliott worked, and by night he had obtained
cars, and all the boarders of the Academy were safely
280 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
on their journey home. As soon as the invading army
entered the city Dr. Elliott and four prominent citi-
zens were arrested and thrown in the city prison, and
later sent to Camp Chase; the Academy was stripped
of its furniture, and the fine pianos were shipped
North. His family remained for a time in the dis-
mantled building, but were finally forced to leave it by
an adverse decision. For one year, 1866, at the close
of the struggle, a school was carried on in the name
of the trustees of the Academy, but then discon-
tinued, the United States Government still occupying
the " Old Academy," and a suit was pending. This
suit, when decided, sent Dr. Elliott out a ruined man
financially, a broken man in prospects, but still the
possessor of ardent convictions and loyalty to his State.
The old Academy degenerated into a boarding-
house, and later was demolished to make room for
A sketch of the " Old Academy " would scarcely
be complete without some mention of Dr. Elliott's life
His parents emigrated from Maryland to Butler
County, Ohio, where Dr. Elliott was born in 1810.
He was not at all fond of mentioning his birthplace,
he was such an ardent Southerner. He received his
collegiate training at Augusta College, Kentucky.
Afterward he taught in LaGrange College, Georgia,
for a number of years, and resigned this position to
take up work in the Nashville Academy, where he
spent twenty-two years of the prime of his life.
Dr. Elliott's baptismal name was Collins, but while
at college he added D. to his name for another initial,
and to make the alphabetical order correct, C. D. E.
He attained at one time a fortune, and his yearly
profit from his school in 1860 was $25,000. His
home when not residing at the Academy was what is
now the Protestant Orphan Asylum, then a palatial
residence surrounded by a large yard enclosed in a
rustic cedar rail fence, which was one of the owner's
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 281
prides. When residing there he went to and from the
Academy in a buggy drawn by a black thoroughbred,
driven by a faithful retainer. When once convinced
that a course of action would be a proper course, he
allowed nothing to turn him from his course. He
demonstrated this in the case of allowing the boarders
to dance. The Methodist Church, of which he was
an ordained minister, dismissed him from her com-
munion. He neither complained of nor resented this
action, and during the severance of his church relation-
ship he joined no other church, but quietly pursued
the even tenor of his way, allowing the dancing and
beginning the school exercises with religious service
and closing with the same, and having family prayers
before "retiring for the night. A few years later he
was lovingly reinstated.
Dr. Elliott believed in the observance of the small
courtesies of life, and he greeted his pupils with the
gracious courtesy due to ladies. When school was
dismissed the pupils formed a line and marched past
the platform, each making a curtsy, to which he re-
sponded with a courteous bow.
To his slaves he was a kind and loving master, and
the bond of friendship between them was severed only
Dr. Elliott retained his mental vigfor unimpaired un-
til he passed away, July 31, 1899. He was survived by
several children, who with many of his old pupils ren-
dered him loving service in his sweet-spirited old age.
His faithful servant, Henry Trabue Porterfield, was
his honorary pall-bearer, following veterans from the
First Tennessee Regiment, walking close to the cof-
fin. The pall was a Confederate flag, on which rested
a beautiful tribute from pupils of the Academy.
(A long description of the " Old Academy " and a
sketch of Dr. Elliott was published in the 'Nashville
Banner in July, 1906, and from that this sketch was
282 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Institutes and Colleges
Columbia Institute, Columbia, Tennessee, 1836-1908
THE Institute is situated on a terraced hill in the
suburbs of Columbia. The building is a castellated
structure, unique in architecture, having been de-
signed by an English architect, after a foreign model.
Since the erection of the original building, seventy-two
years ago, two memorial halls have been erected; the
first the Museum, a memorial to Bishops Leonidas
Polk and James Harvey Otey, of the Protestant Epis-
copal Church; the second, Margaretta Bowles Memo-
Columbia Institute was established in 1836 by Bish-
ops Polk and Otey, who were desirous to establish a
school for girls, of collegiate grade, which would be
under the direction of the Episcopal Church. Bishop
Otey was especially interested in this work. In 1852
he wrote : *' I have spent the best energies of my soul
and passed the most vigorous years of my life in its
[the Institute's] cause, or it would have been hope-
lessly ruined by its load of debt. For five or six years
I have labored incessantly, being sometimes absent
for six months from my home and family in my ef-
forts to raise funds for its relief. I have worked hard
and worked long without hope of fee or reward other
than the humble expectation of being serviceable to the
people among whom Providence has cast my lot/'
(See " Higher Education in Tennessee.")
Another devoted friend of the Institute was Miss
Margaretta Bowles. Miss Bowles was a lady of leisure
and culture, who had spent many years and large sums
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 283
of money in collecting a museum which comprised
cabinets of minerals, rocks, and fossils; of zoology,
illustrating all the sub-kingdoms, and especially rich
in ornithology ; a botanical collection containing speci-
mens from every part of the world ; an anatomical cab-
inet and a collection of curios and virtu. The most
valuable of the last named are the celebrated ala-
baster vase from the Medici collection, the Portland
vase, and an Etruscan cist between 2,500 and 3,000
years old ; a statue of Cupid by Gibson and a few
original paintings by Cana, Gainsboro, and Carter.
Miss Bowles also collected a library of 10,000 vol-
umes, compiled with a view to its educational uses,
and containing old and rare books. Among these are
two works of Erasmus, " The Praise of Folly " and
the New Testament, Froben edition, published in
1530; the first English translation of " Don Quixote,"
published in London in 1612; the Black Letter Bible
of 1690; the Breeches Bible of 1582; the Prayer of St.
Nersetis, in thirty-three languages, published in the
Arminian Convent of Venice; Boydell's Shakespeare,
which has now become so rare as to bring $500; and
Beda's Ecclesiastical History in the original Latin,
and many other ancient books of equal value and in-
Miss Bowles wished to bequeath this collection to
some school, and after visiting many schools in the
South she selected the Institute as the school to which
she would donate the collection. She also taught
gratuitously in the Institute for nine years, and be-
queathed to it all her unentailed estate.
The building was occupied and much abused by the
Federal troops during the war between the States.
As soon as it could be repaired after the withdrawal
of the troops, school was again begun. With this in-
termission the school has been in active operation
since its opening in 1836. It has always been a char-
tered institution, having the power to confer degrees,
and has always granted diplomas ; though now it does
284 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
not claim to be a modern college, but a preparatory
The course adopted was the usual A. B. course of
the colleges for men, modified by substituting French
for Greek and adding courses in music and art. This
course has been still further modified by the adop-
tion of modern methods and the addition of the busi-
ness and domestic science departments.
The present principal, Miss Mary A. Bryant, says :
" We do not claim to be a college, but we are a church
school. Believing that thoroughness is necessary to
the formation of Christian character, we endeavor to
do thorough preparatory work to make a home school
where the best formative influences are to be found,
where the education is sound, and the moral and spirit-
ual culture is uplifting and helpful."
Hozvard College, Gallatin, Tennessee, 1837-1908
Howard College was established in 1837. It be-
came the property of the Odd Fellows and was char-
tered in 1856. It has had a number of prominent
educators as its presidents and members of its facul-
ties. One of the most successful presidents was Prof.
A. M. Burney, who took charge of the College in
1882, and administered its affairs until his death in
1895, leaving it in a flourishing condition.
The course of study is divided into primary, inter-
mediate, and collegiate. In addition to the regular
course, there will be offered a normal course, includ-
ing school law and theory and practice of teaching".
The equipment provides for the departments of art,
music, elocution, and physical culture.
The degrees conferred are Bachelor of Science and
Bachelor of Arts. Appropriate degrees will be con-
ferred upon students who complete the course of study
in the music, elocution, and art departments, provided
they are good English scholars and have met the other
requirements of the school.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 285
The College buildings and grounds belong to
Howard Lodge, No. 13, I. O. O. F., at Gallatin,
Tennessee, and the College is conducted under the
auspices of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee. The re-
lation of the order to the College is, therefore, that of a
fostering patron; but it extends the same advantages
and privilege to all students, regardless of church re-
lations or section. Free tuition in the literary depart-
ment is offered to all worthy orphans of the order.
(This sketch was taken from the catalogue for 1901-
Clarksville Female Academy, Clarksville } Tennessee,
The first exclusively girls' school in Clarksville was
" Mrs. Killebrew's boarding and day school for young
ladies." Mrs. Killebrew was the daughter of Rosanna
and Daniel Barry of Bardstown, Kentucky, where
Mr. -Barry was a famous teacher of the classics. Many
most elegant women were educated at this school,
which continued until 1835.
In 1833 Dr. L. D. Ring taught a high school for
girls at the Masonic Hall. It was called " high " be-
cause he taught the classics, including French. Dr.
Ring deserves credit for the amount of solid instruc-
tion he gave the young people who attended his school.
In 1835 Rev. Mr. Russell and wife taught success-
fully a female academy in Masonic Hall. This school
continued a year or two, when Mrs. Whitman taught
there " The Masonic Female Institute." In 1842
Mrs. Eugenia Poston, one of the most impressive and
characteristic educators of Clarksville, taught a
" school for young ladies." She certainly laid the
solid foundation of many excellent educations.
White Hall, a select boarding and literary school
for young women, six miles in the country, was estab-
lished and managed by Miss Mollie Ward, with pro-
ficient assistants. For years she collected and faith-
fully taught, not only pupils from this, but all Southern
286 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
States. Wherever her pupils entered, after being
trained for any length of time under the White Hall
discipline, they took high standing. There were
teachers of music, Professors Wendle and Herblin, and
French Professors, Guillet and Manton,'all graduates
from the old country.
Clarksville was advancing in material wealth,
pioneer days had passed, and there arose a general
clamor for more permanent and advanced schools. The
representative people seriously discussed the matter,
and declared, " We must have improved home schools
for young people." Under the leadership of Rev.
Henry Beaumont, a local Methodist preacher, measures
were taken to establish an academy for girls. The re-
sult was the Clarksville Female Academy, as a char-
tered institution of learning, was organized in 1846,
the charter having been granted by the Tennessee
Legislature of that year.
The necessary funds were raised by a stock company,
chiefly by the efforts of the Methodists of the town
and vicinity, liberally aided by other denominations,
and many of no denominational proclivities. The
Tennessee Annual Conference of the Methodist Epis-
copal Church South took thirty-two shares of stock
$800 in the institution. The Academy opened
auspiciously, and was satisfactorily conducted with
constantly increasing attendance until 1852, when the
charter was amended, and the institution reorganized.
In 1854 a new board of directors was elected and the
capital stock largely increased, and the trustees were
enabled to enlarge the building.
During the first decade of its existence the Acad-
emy had three presidents, and began the second decade
under the management of Rev. A. L. Hamilton of
Alabama. From 1856 to 1861 the Academy enjoyed
great prosperity. The annual enrollment was between
three and four hundred, between two and three hun-
dred of whom were boarders. During this period, lec-
tures, " soirees musicale," and literary evenings with
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 287
social features added, were in order, and the week of
examinations at the end of the long term was con-
cluded with a grand " reception."
The school was closed by the war and the building
was used as a hospital for Federal troops. In 1866
the building was repaired, and school opened October,
1866, with very good prospects, with Rev. J. B. West,
D. D., principal.
In 1882 the old building was replaced by a commo-
dious modern building, furnished with suitable appli-
ances for teaching. The course of study is divided
into primary, including kindergarten; intermediate,
two years ; academic, two years ; collegiate, four years,
and post-graduate courses. To these courses are
added the schools of music, art, elocution, and voice
culture. When Mrs. Buford took charge of the school
in 1884 she introduced the university course of Bible
study. She also raised the standard to suit modern
The literary society of the Academy in ante bellum
days was called The Irving, in honor of Washington
Irving. The literary societies of the present time are,
the Philolethian motto, " The beaten track is the safe
one " ; the Hypatian motto, " To be is better than to
seem." These societies edit The Academian, a period-
ical that would do credit to any college class.
The original charter granted the Academy power to
confer honors, certificates, diplomas, and degrees upon
all worthy students of the school. The curriculum
adopted was the curriculum required to obtain the de-
gree of A. B. The degree of A. M. is conferred upon
post-graduates. The degree of B. M. (Bachelor of
Music) is conferred upon those who finish the course
in music on the piano; the degree of B. P. (Bachelor
of Painting) is conferred upon those who finish the
course in painting : the degree of M. E. L. upon those
who finish an English course. Although not so called,
the Academy has always been a college.
("History of Clarksville Academy," by Mrs.
288 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Nannie H. William. Catalogues and correspond-
Rogersville Synodical College, Rogersville, Tennessee,
Rogersville Synodical College is a corporation, char-
tered under the laws of the State of Tennessee, and is
authorized to confer degrees, diplomas, and other hon-
orary testimonials, and the possessors of these honors
shall be entitled to all of the privileges and immunities
allowed by statute and usage to the recipients of
like testimonials from other colleges of the State. The
College is the property of the Synod of Nashville
(Presbyterian), and is under direct control of a board
of trustees appointed by the Synod, whose object is
the maintenance of a first-class college for girls in the
interest of Christian education. (Catalogue for 1901-
This school was organized in 1849 by the Odd Fel-
lows, whose purpose was to establish a non-denomina-
tional school of collegiate grade for girls. Although
the school was very successful, the cost of the buildings
far exceeded the expectation of the founders and they
determined to sell the property. It was purchased by
a joint stock company composed of the membership
of the Old and New School Presbyterians of the town,
and continued to prosper until the Federal troops oc-
cupied East Tennessee. After the war the property
was sold several times before it came into the posses-
sion of its present owners.
The school was in a languishing condition until the
incumbency of Rev. J. W. Bachman, D. D., in 1871-74,
but since that time its growth has been rapid but
steady. The buildings have been remodeled and sup-
plied with modern conveniences. The property is
valued at $6o,coo and is free from debt. The school
has had almost uninterrupted prosperity, having never
been closed since its commencement in 1849. I* nas
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 289
had a long line of presidents, the first of whom was
Rev. Wm. D. Jones, D. D., and the thirteenth Rev.
T. P. Walton, the present incumbent all of them,
except Prof. H. B. Todd and Mrs. F. A. Ross, minis-
ters of the Gospel. The school now has prospects for
greater usefulness and success than ever.
(Sources of information are Merriam's "Higher
Education in Tennessee," catalogues, and letters from
Rev. T. P. Walton.)
Mary Sharp College, Winchester, Tennessee, 1850-
This college was established under the name of The
Tennessee and Alabama Institute, in Winchester,
Tennessee, in 1850. Dr. Z. C. Graves was the first
president. He began under very discouraging circum-
stances, as the building was not finished for three years
after the opening of the school, it owned no apparatus
or " helps " of any kind, and had no funds. After a
time Mrs. Mary Sharp, a wealthy widow, made a gift
to the school, and its name was changed to Mary Sharp
This college claims to be a real college, having the
same curriculum and requiring the same amount of
work for the degrees of A. B. and A. M. as is required
in colleges for men. The standard of scholarship has
always been high, the courses of study comprehensive
and advanced, the training careful and thorough. The
course in mathematics is quite severe. The high
standard and the success of the school is mainly due to
Dr. Graves, who had great gifts as a teacher; how-
ever, he had able colleagues, who contributed much to
the success of the school. Mary Sharp claims that she
was the first college that made Greek a requisite for
graduation. She appealed to Hon. John Eaton, Com-
missioner of Education, to sustain her claim, and he
answered that no college that had communicated with
290 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
his office had made Latin and Greek a sine qua non for
the degree of A. B. prior to 1853.
While the standard of literary excellence has been
high, comparatively little attention has been paid to
music and art ; and so far as the writer could ascertain,
Mary Sharp has not extended her curriculum so as to
embrace practical or commercial courses of study.
Mary Sharp has had three presidents. Dr. Z. C.
Graves, who was president thirty-nine years, was suc-
ceeded by Rev. John L. Johnson, D. D., LL. D. ; Dr.
Johnson resigned in 1891 and was succeeded by Rev.
Otis Malvin Sutton. Mary Sharp is a Baptist insti-
tution. It sustains no official relation to the church,
but two-thirds of its twenty-five trustees must be Bap-
tists. The College is sustained entirely by tuition fees,
never having had an endowment fund.
.(The writer has had a knowledge of the require-
ments of Mary Sharp for some years, having prepared
pupils for entrance to the College. For a more de-
tailed account see Merriam's " History of Higher Edu-
cation in Tennessee.")
Cumberland Female College, McMinnville, Tennessee,
Cumberland College was organized in 1850 and
placed under the management and control of the Mid-
dle Tennessee Synod of the Cumberland Presbyterian
Church. It was located in the town of McMinnville,
in Middle Tennessee, at the foot of the Cumberland
range, which is in full view east and south. The war
forced the school to close and left of its building noth-
ing but naked walls. Despite the disheartening pros-
pect, the building was refitted and the school reopened,
and it is now on a firmer basis than ever. In 1888
the board of trustees leased the property and trans-
ferred the financial management to the Cumberland
Female College Association for a term of years, re-
taining for themselves only such duties as the char-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 291
ter renders obligatory. The College has in all depart-
ments twelve teachers. It has had five presidents.
Brownsville College, Brownsville, Tennessee, 1851
In 1850 the Baptist Church in Brownsville sub-
scribed $io,oco for the purpose of securing the loca-
tion of a college for girls in or near Brownsville.
What action the Baptist General Convention took in
this matter is not now known. However, the Browns-
ville school obtained a charter in 1852 under the legal
name of West Tennessee Baptist Female College.
The members of the first board of trustees were ap-
pointed by the West Tennessee Baptist Convention.
Thereafter the board was self-perpetuating. The
school remained the property of the West Tennessee
Baptist Convention until the latter was merged in the
Baptist General Convention of Tennessee in 1874.
Since that time it has been owned by the Brownsville
Baptist Church, although controlled by the self-per-
petuating board of trustees.
The College was opened in September, 1851, with
Rev. Harvey Ball, professor of languages, in charge.
Rev. John B. White, A. M., president of Wake For-
est College, North Carolina, was called to the presi-
dency, but owing to sickness in his family did not
definitely enter upon his duties until September, 1853.
Rev. Dr. William Shelton was president from 1856 to
1866. During the war the college was suspended and
Dr. Shelton taught a private school in the buildings.
Brownsville College was fortunate enough not to
suffer any loss to her grounds and buildings from war.
The most elementary instruction is given, at the
same time calculus, Greek, astronomy, and Anglo-
Saxon are taught. For Mistress of Arts, the highest
degree of the institution, successful examinations must
be passed in the schools of English, Latin, French,
German, natural science, mental and moral science,
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
mathematics, history, political economy, and civics.
Greek, calculus, Anglo-Saxon, and Spanish are offered
as optional studies.
(Merriam's " Higher Education in Tennessee.")
Tennessee Female College, Franklin, Tennessee
Tennessee Female College was established chiefly
through the efforts of John Marshall, a gifted lawyer
of Franklin. The school was placed under the patron-
age of the Tennessee Annual Conference of the Metho-
dist Episcopal Church South. "The ownership of the
property was vested in a stock company. The school
was chartered in 1856 and opened in 1857. John M.
Sharp was the first president and a Mr. Callendar the
second. After the fall of Fort Donelson the school
was closed, and after the battle of Franklin the college
buildings were used as a hospital for wounded soldiers.
The school was opened again in 1865, but did not
prosper under the management of Mr. Callaghan, and
in 1868 the property was sold to Dr. R. K. Hargrove
for $10,000, the amount of its indebtedness. The
school remained under the management of Dr. Har-
grove and Professor William J. Vaughn, now of Van-
derbilt University, for twelve years. They raised the
standard of the institution above the ordinary schools
for girls in Tennessee. In 1880 Mrs. M. E. Clark
leased the property for five years and at the expiration
of her lease it was purchased by Mr. Thomas Edger-
ton. In 1886 the buildings were burned. It was re-
built by a stock company and the school continued
under the management of Mr. Edgerton. In 1893 the
school was leased by Rev. Wilbur F. Wilson, under
whose management it still remains.
The course of instruction includes primary, inter-
mediate, and collegiate departments. It also has facili-
ties for instruction in music and art.
(Merriam's " Higher Education in Tennessee.")
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH
Soule College, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, 1852-1908
The predecessor of this college was " The Old Acad-
emy " on the hill. It was chartered in 1830. (See
Records of Rutherford County.)
In 1852 the charter of this academy was amended
so as to grant the power of conferring degrees and all
the privileges usually granted to colleges, and Soule
College was established. The buildings were not com-
pleted until 1853. About the middle of the session of
1852-53 the school was transferred to the new build-
ing. The presidents were: Prof. J. R. Finley, 1852-
1853; Rev. S. D. Baldwin, 1853-1856; Prof. C. W.
Callendar, 1856-1858; Rev. George E. Naff, 1858
Feb., 1862. The war suspended the exercises from
February, 1862, to January, 1866. Rev. J. R. Plum-
mer, 1866-1868; Rev. D. D. Moore, 1868-1874; Rev.
J. D. West, 1874-1877; Rev. B. R. Thomson, 1877-
1889; Rev. Z. C. Graves, 1889-1892; Miss O. V.
Wardlaw, A. M., 1892
Mr. Baldwin was the author of " Armageddon."
Dr. Graves had made a reputation for building up
schools at Mary Sharp, and the management secured
his services to restore Soule College to its former
flourishing state. Thus for a time the school passed
into the hands of the Baptists; but it was not in the
nature of human events that a school named Soule
and baptized in that name, could be merged and sub-
merged, and after a while it emerged and found its
proper place under the management of Miss Wardlaw.
The first graduating class, 1853, consisted of Miss
Josephine Plummer and Miss Sallie Higgins. Mrs.
Sue F. Mooney in a letter to the author says of Miss
Wardlaw's management, " It would be impossible to
say too much in praise of this administration, both as
to regime, religion, home life of students and financial
management. I think it in all these respects a model
school, and I know whereof I speak." Mrs. Mooney
294 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
was a member of the second graduating class, a teacher
in the institution, and has always had much interest in
Preparatory and academic schools are conducted in
connection with Soule College; and in addition to the
regular college curriculum there are the departments
of music, art, and elocution. The degrees conferred
are A. B. and B. S. and the course in art, music, and
vocal music leads to a diploma.
The school again became the property of the M. E.
Church South in 1904.
(The information contained in this sketch was ob-
tained from a letter from Mrs. Mooney, one from Mr.
De Jarnatt, and a catalogue sent by Miss Wardlaw.)
Columbia Athenaeum, Columbia, Tennessee, 1852-
The Columbia Athenaeum was opened on September
i, 1852. Its founder, Rev. Franklin G. Smith, a
graduate of Princeton College, and his no less accom-
plished wife, Sarah Ann Smith, had previous to this
time achieved enviable reputation as teachers not only
in Columbia, but in Lynchburg, Virginia.
In 1858 the Legislature of the State granted a char-
ter to the Columbia Athenaeum, giving full university
privileges, with power to confer degrees.
In August, 1866, Rev. Franklin G. Smith closed his
earthly labors, leaving to his wife the direction of the
school, which trust was successfully administered until
her decease in January, 1871, when the Athenaeum
passed under the personal direction of their eldest son,
Robert D. Smith. The Athenaeum of to-day, there-
fore, fairly represents and embodies the accumulated
experience of more than half a century in the care and
training of the young. While it keeps abreast with
the progressive tendency of the times, it is pervaded,
nevertheless, by the traditions of an honorable past
that renders its policy conservative, as befits the alma
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 295
mater of our daughters, now numbered by the thou-
sands, and widely scattered both in this and foreign
lands. The Athenaeum grounds, comprising about
sixteen acres of high rolling land, are located at the
western edge of Columbia, the county-seat of Maury
The school buildings occupy a broad eminence com-
manding an extensive view of the town and surround-
ing country. They consist of Study Hall, a Doric
structure; Davis Hall, the boarding department;
rotunda, pavilion, gymnasium, and rectory. The
grounds and buildings are valued at $100,000. Be-
sides the gymnasium building and its numerous appli-
ances, there are a tennis court and croquet grounds.
The library contains 10,000 volumes, and is one of the
appointed depositories of the United States Govern-
ment publications. The museum contains specimens
in all departments of natural history. It is a very
valuable collection, properly classified and labelled.
Chemical, physical and astronomical apparatus, costing
$6,000, include all that is necessary for experiments in
the department of physical science. The art depart-
ment contains a fine collection of the finest paintings.
The music department is well equipped. The commer-
cial and industrial departments are supplied with all
necessary material for conducting and illustrating
The course of instruction is divided into a primary
course of three years, a preparatory course of four
years, and a collegiate course of four years. The de-
grees granted are B. A., B. S., and B. Lt.
The annual enrollment during the fifty years of the
Athenaeum's history has varied from 125 to 30. In-
cluding the president the Athenaeum employs twenty-
three officers and teachers.
296 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Early Schools in Texas
FOR a time both Spaniards and the French claimed
Texas, but the Spaniards succeeded in establishing
their claim, and they rapidly increased settlements not
only in the southern part of Texas, but established
some settlements in the northern and eastern parts of
the State. These settlements were called sometimes
" Presidios " and sometimes " Missions " ; in reality
they were both. No settlement could be made without
a " presidio " or garrison for soldiers ; and usually
wherever a presidio was located a church was built
near by, and in connection with the church a monastery
for the priests; the whole, including many acres of
land, was enclosed by a wall. At each of these " pre-
sidios " there was a school ; not a literary school, but a
school to teach the tenets of the Roman Catholic faith ;
a school for the conversion of the Indians to that faith.
Church and state were firmly united in Mexico at that
time, and the church allowed no schools to exist save
those taught by priests, and if any attempt was made
to violate the law, the teacher and patrons were liable
to heavy fine or imprisonment or both. Therefore,
schoolhouses were seldom if ever built, and schools
were taught in private residences, or under the trees.
The first American school in Texas was taught
under four large oaks which grew near a residence in
the vicinity of Victoria.
The text-books were just what any pupil happened
to have; some of the books were Pike's Arithmetic,
Murray's Grammar, Smith's Grammar, Peter Parley's
History, and the Bible; there were a few slates, but no
blackboard ; however, everybody had a " blue-back
speller." With this slender equipment the pioneer
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 297
children were prepared for the stern realities that
awaited them, and judging from the results obtained,
they were well prepared.
After Texas gained her independence schools multi-
plied rapidly; of course all primary schools were co-
educational, and the schools of higher grade were co-
educational or not, according to the views of the sec-
tion of the State in which they were located.
The American population usually settled in colonies,
and when single families immigrated to Texas they
drifted to the colonies that had emigrated from their
own section of the country. These colonies retained
the opinions and practices of the home section on edu-
cational methods, politics, and religion. Hence in dif-
ferent sections of Texas widely different views on
these subjects were entertained. This was particularly
noticeable in regard to schools. In some sections all
schools were co-educational, in others separate schools
for boys and girls were maintained.
Notwithstanding the Republic of Texas made liberal
provision for schools, the early schools of a higher
grade were denominational schools.
The Methodists entered this field of activity at an
early date. Rev. Martin Ruter, first missionary to
Texas, visited Houston in the latter part of 1837, and
preached before Congress and made a fine impression
on the officers of the government. Consulting with
leading men, he laid plans for the establishment of a
literary institution. However, these plans did not def-
initely locate the institution in Houston, though that
seems to have been Dr. Ruter's intention. After his
death in May, 1838, his friends formed a company,
and bought a league of land near Rutersville, and
located the college there.
The school was opened to pupils in the fall of 1838,
and its charter was approved February 5, 1840, undei
the name of Rutersville College, and according to the
terms of the charter it had the usual powers granted
298 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
By the liberality of the Texas Congress and private
individuals, Rutersville College received a large en-
dowment of land ; but the trustees had no money, and
this land was sold and bartered to erect buildings, to
pay teachers, and pay mechanics. Good buildings
were erected and the best teachers available employed,
and thus the endowment was expended, and the people
had the benefit of a good school, that exerted no in-
considerable influence throughout central and western
After the endowment was expended the school be-
came dependent on tuition fees, and in 1847 ceased to
be a Conference school, but continued until 1850, when
it was consolidated with the Monumental Institute, a
school established on an undenominational basis.
This school retained the original charter powers of the
Rutersville College, and the charter was amended
August 6, 1856, changing the name to Monumental
and Military Institute, otherwise retaining the same
powers. This last arrangement continued until 1861,
when the majority of the men left college halls for the
army. This so much reduced the number of students
that the school did not reopen in the fall, and the con-
ditions during the Reconstruction period were such as
to forbid any attempt to reopen the college. Thus
passed out of existence the first college established in
McKenzie Institute, Clarksville, Texas, 1840-1908
McKenzie Institute was commenced as a private co-
educational school by Rev. J. W. P. McKenzie, near
ClarksVille, Red River County, in 1839 or 1840. It
soon became very popular, and the annual attendance
was from 200 to 300. The school had been in active
work about fifteen years when Mr. McKenzie applied
for a charter, which was approved February 5, 1854.
The charter name was McKenzie Institute, but it was
really a college, as the charter granted the power to
grant diplomas and confer degrees.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 299
In 1859 Dr. McKenzie donated the buildings and
grounds, valued at $40,000, to the trustees for the
East Texas Conference. In 1860 the charter was
amended by changing the name to McKenzie College.
This school was always co-educational.
The War between the States very materially inter-
fered with the prosperity of the school, and the attend-
ance has never been so large since 1860 as it was prior
to that date. The school is now correlated with the
Southwestern University, and recognized as a training
school for that institution.
Chappell Hill College, Chappell Hill, Texas, 1850-1908
In 1850 the citizens of Chappell Hill established
schools for boys and girls. These schools were suc-
cessful as to numbers, and were taught by the best
teachers obtainable. While the schools were satisfac-
tory as grammar schools, the citizens desired some-
thing higher a more advanced course for their chil-
dren, and in 1855 Soule College for men and Chappell
Hill Female College for women were established.
These colleges were partially endowed, but this fund
was rendered unavailable by the results of the War
between the States ; however, the college for girls con-
tinued to receive pupils, depending solely upon tuition
fees. The first interruption to the work of the College
was in 1867, when a visitation of yellow fever caused
the closing of the school, and for a time it was dis-
organized; but in 1870 it was reorganized, and still
continues to do good work, though it is not now rec-
ognized as a first-class college.
Paine Institute, Coliad, Texas, 1854
Another school of high grade established by the
Methodists was Paine Institute, which was opened to
pupils in 1854, and was chartered August 6, 1856. By
the terms of this charter the Institute w r as empowered
300 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
to grant diplomas and to confer degrees. The school
became popular immediately but labored under the dis-
advantage of being in debt, until 1868, when the $2,000
then due was paid.
This school had a fair degree of success for more
than twenty-six years, then it was made a part of the
The next year, 1855, the Methodists established
Paris Female Institute, in Paris, and the Starkville
Female High School in Starkville. However, pre-
vious to the establishment of these schools the same
denomination had established Waco Female Academy
in 1850. The charter of this school was approved
December 31, 1850. No mention is made of honors
in this charter, but it was amended or changed August
7, 1856, and then the name was changed to Waco
Female Seminary, and the trustees were empowered
to grant diplomas and confer degrees. The school
then became the property of the Methodist Confer-
In the Acts of the Legislature of Texas, Volumes
VII and VIII, may be found the charters of Waco
Academy, granted August 15, 1856, and of the Union
Female Institute, granted February 16, 1858; also the
act by which the Academy, the Seminary previously
mentioned, and the Waco Institute were consolidated.
This act was passed February, 1860, and the name and
style of the school henceforth was Waco Female Col-
lege, which under this charter has all the powers and
privileges usually granted to colleges.
This school was never endowed, but for many years
had a large patronage. Notwithstanding, a heavy
debt was incurred, and in 1895 or 1896 the property
was sold to liquidate this debt, and the school passed
out of existence after a successful career of about one-
Another Methodist college for girls was Segiiin Col-
lege, established in Seguin in 1858, and continued in
successful operation until 1895, when the patronage
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 301
began to decrease, and somewhat later it was incor-
porated in the public-school system.
Wesley College, San Augustine, Texas, 1842
As Rutersville College was in the western part of the
State, almost on the frontier, the Methodists thought
best to establish a college in the northeastern part of
the State. Accordingly, in 1842, they asked for a
charter for a college to be located in San Augustine.
As was Rutersville, so Wesley College was co-educa-
tional. For a time it was very popular and gave to
hundreds of young women an opportunity to acquire
a collegiate training, which otherwise they could not
The College was not endowed, and depended en-
tirely on tuition fees for its maintenance. There was
trouble about the title, and the East Texas Conference
relinquished all claims to the property; however, the
school continued under local management and patron-
age until 1868, when the buildings were destroyed by
fire during the session of the East Texas Conference
in San Augustine.
Baylor College, Belton, Texas, 1845-1908
While the Methodists were the pioneers and actively
engaged in establishing schools for boys and girls, the
Baptists were not idle or indifferent. The first college
established by them was Baylor College and Baylor
University. The charter of this institution was
granted by the Republic of Texas, February i, 1845.
Thus the establishment of this college antedated the
admission of Texas into the Union as a State. The
design of the Baptist fathers in Texas was to establish
in what was then a frontier region an institution of
high rank for the education of their sons and
Baylor College was at first only a department or
302 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
annex to the University; but this plan did not meet
the approval of those interested in the school, and after
a trial of twelve years of co-education the board of
managers decided to make the departments separate
schools, and the department for girls was chartered
under the name of Baylor College, and committed to
its own board of control and trustees.
In 1851 Mr. Horace Clark was elected principal of
the girls' department, and in 1867, when the College
was established, he became its first president. He held
this position some ten years. During this time the in-
stitution gained a State-wide reputation.
This institution was first located at Independence,
but in 1885 the State Convention decreed the removal
of the College to Belton. The citizens of Belton fur-
nished the building.
The buildings are a main building, a T-shaped
structure of cut stone, three stories in height, modern
in style of architecture, and furnished with modern
conveniences. Surrounding this building are a num-
ber of resident cottages, dining-hall, laundry, and en-
gine-room; and just outside the campus are the
alumnae cottages, seven in number ; a building for the
accommodation of the industrial department of the
college, " Cottage Home/' a building of cement blocks,
three stories in height ; and a new administration build-
The equipment consists of chemical and philosophi-
cal apparatus well suited for all experiments and illus-
trations necessary for the study of the natural
sciences; a museum, consisting of minerals, fossils,
botanical and zoological specimens, and articles of his-
toric or ethnological interest; a library of well-chosen
books, selected from standard authors ; and each of the
societies the Historical and Academia has a library,
one of which is the Effie Smythe Memorial Library
founded by Mr. T. V. Smythe in memory of his
daughter Effie, who was a member of the Academia
Society. There are also a reading-room, a large sup-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 303
ply of instruments for the music department, and the
necessary outfit for the art department.
When Baylor College was a part of Baylor Uni-
versity of course the curriculum was the same for boys
and girls. After the separation the standard was not
lowered, but raised if any change was made. It has
always been an institution of high rank.
The motto of the College has always been, " A
liberal education with true womanliness." Its aim is
to cultivate the intellect and at the same time to pre-
serve and perfect the truest womanhood.
The degrees conferred are Bachelor of Literature,
Bachelor of Science, and Bachelor of Arts. Diplomas
and certificates are conferred on pupils of music and
art who complete the prescribed course in these depart-
The College also offers a post-graduate course, and
on those who successfully complete this course the de-
gree of M. A. Mistress of Arts is conferred.
Baylor claims to be the pioneer in higher education
of women in Texas, but this claim is not well founded.
Rutersville College was founded seven years prior to
the establishment of Baylor, and on the same plan
co-educational. Though Rutersville did not obtain a
charter when founded, it did obtain one prior to the
establishment of Baylor.
These three colleges Rutersville, 1838, Wesley
College, 1842, and Baylor College, 1845 were tne
three pioneer colleges established in Texas. The first
and second were Methodist institutions.
The interest in education, especially the education of
girls, was increasing about as rapidly as the popula-
tion was increasing, and during the decade from 1850
to 1860 eleven schools of high grade were established.
With few exceptions these were discontinued by war.
Some were merged into the public-school system as
high schools; one yet remains independent.
304 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Margaret Houston Female College, Danger-field, 1856
While the Methodists were busy establishing schools,
the Baptists were not idle. They began very early to
foster the cause of education, and established one col-
lege in 1845, and another, the Margaret Houston, in
1856. This college was under the direct supervision
of the Baptist Convention and a board of fifteen
trustees ; the teachers were to be known as professors,
and the property was limited to $300,000. The char-
ter was approved August i, 1856.
From the list of schools chartered by the Legislature
the following list of schools for girls has been ob-
Union Academy, Washington County, chartered
February 4, 1840.
Wheelock Academy, Wheelock, Robertson County,
Mount Vernon Academy, Titus County, January 24,
Richmond Academy, Richmond, Fort Bend County,
February 13, 1852.
Bastrop Academy, Bastrop, January 24, 1852.
This academy was established by an Educational As-
sociation, and its charter granted the power to grant
diplomas and confer degrees.
Linden Academy, December 15, 1853.
New Danville Masonic Academy, January 24, 1854.
Comal Union School, San Marcos, Comal County,
Shearn Union School, November 30, 1853.
Undenominational Institutes and Colleges
LaGrange Female Institute, LaGrange, Fayette
Galveston Seminary, Galveston, Galveston County,
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 305
was an interdenominational school, though the Metho-
dists were the leaders in the movement by which the
school was established. Notwithstanding the fact that
the Galveston City Land Company, at its first meeting
April 13, 1838, set apart one block of land for a col-
lege for men, and three valuable and eligible lots for
a seminary for girls, the citizens did not make use of
this valuable gift for some years after the city had
attained considerable size. Schools by private indi-
viduals were taught from 1838 and down to the present
day, but no school of any importance was established
in Galveston until 1843, when the Galveston Seminary
was opened to pupils, with the Misses C. S. and E. M.
Cobb as principals. The school obtained a charter in
1849, but it was not until 1857 that the new building
erected on the ground donated in 1838 was ready for
Masonic Female Institute, Marshall, Titus County,
January 24, 1850.
Cold Springs Collegiate Institute, Cold Springs,
1852. Conferred usual degrees.
Henderson Female College, Henderson, Rusk
Milam Institute, Cameron, Milam County, August
Mound Prairie Institute, 1856. This was a college
proper, situated a short distance north of Palestine,
Anderson County. It had " full powers to confer de-
grees, and the rights and privileges of any college or
university in the State."
Mrs. C. H. Wright, a teacher of many years' experi-
ence and great reputation, took charge of the Mata-
gorda Academy. This school had been in existence
many years, but so far as the record shows never was
chartered. Notwithstanding, the course was the
usual academic course.
306 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Several such schools were taught in Houston, and
according to the advertisements in the Houston Tele-
graph, these schools were of high-school grade; the
modern and ancient languages and higher mathematics
were taught. However, some were more popular and
continued longer than others. Among this class was
the school taught by Mr. A. M. Ruter and Miss C.
Ruter, which commenced April 7, 1856, and continued
On the ist of October, 1856, Mr. and Mrs. Bolinger
opened the Houston Male and Female Academy in
the Masonic Temple on a permanent basis. This
school seems to have been modeled on the collegiate
plan; its divisions were primary, junior, middle and
senior classes. The curriculum was in part : Algebra,
geometry, natural and moral philosophy, chemistry,
mensuration, trigonometry, Latin, French. Mr.
James A. Bolinger, the principal of this school, was a
native of Kentucky, and had made quite a reputation
before casting his lot in Houston. His first announce-
ment informed the citizens that they would have an
opportunity to give their children a classical education.
The name was changed to Bolinger Academy, and
judging from the favorable notices of this Academy in
the Houston Telegraph it had a successful career until
closed by the chaos of Reconstruction days. Certainly
there were some pleasant times connected with it. One
of these was a May-day picnic in 1858. On this oc-
casion the different classes were distinguished by
badges the primary by green, the junior by pink, the
middle by blue, and the senior by white ; and each class
had a banner of the same color as its badge. The
school formed in line on Court-house Square, and
headed by Fisher's Band, marched to the Tap Road
Station. A short run landed them in a grove near
Bray's Bayou. Here eighty speeches by thirty queens
and fifty knights were made, and ten dialogues recited.
One of these is especially mentioned. It was supposed
to be a conversation between a Yankee and a British
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 307
general; the boys representing these characters were
Ed. Taylor and John Hale. After this exercise the
dinner, which had been prepared by the parents of the
pupils, was served. Unless the speeches were very
short, the dinner must have been served about the
middle of the afternoon, and by that time every one
was very hungry.
This seems to have been a favorite name for schools
of higher grade than the common schools. Several
schools established at different times and taught by
different faculties have borne this name; but the one
which has been known longest and the only chartered
school of that name was established by an " Educa-
tional Association " which was formed in the early part
of 1853. The members of this Association were Col.
Ashbel Smith, Messrs. Cornelius Ennis, L. J. Palmer,
B. A. Shepherd, Wm. J. Hutchins, Wm. M. Rice,
P. W. Gray, T. W. House, Sr., Henry Sampson, A. J.
Burke, M. D. Conklin, Wm. Baker, B. B. Botts, L. J.
Palmer, and some others whose names have not been
recorded. A number of these men subscribed $1,000
each, and Mr. Ennis, or rather Mrs. Ennis, gave one
block of ground instead of the money. The present
Houston High School stands on the same block of
The Association elected a board of trustees, and of
this board Mr. B. A. Shepherd was president. These
trustees applied for a charter, which was approved
August 29, 1856. This charter empowered the
trustees to grant diplomas and to confer degrees.
The building erected was a two-story brick struc-
ture, and cost $30,000. The school was opened to
pupils October, 1857, with Col. Ashbel Smith, prin-
cipal, and a competent corps of teachers. Colonel
Smith retained the position only a few months, and
was succeeded by Mr. Petit, who continued in charge
of the school until June, 1860, when he resigned and
808 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
was succeeded by Dr. J. R. Hutchison. Dr. Hutchi-
son was removed by the military authorities of the
Confederate States, who converted the building into a
hospital. At the time of this removal Dr. Hutchison's
enrollment was 150. After Dr. Hutchison left the
Academy he taught a private school in Turner Hall K
where he also preached to the Presbyterian congrega-
tion until their church, which had been destroyed by
fire, could be rebuilt.
Although the school commenced in 1857, the school
building was not completed until 1858. In the mean-
time the school was taught in rooms in the Masonic
Temple. In November, 1858, Mr. B. A. Shepherd,
president of the board of trustees, announced through
the columns of the Houston Telegraph that the build-
ing was completed and would be occupied by the school
December i, 1858. He also gives the views of the
board and the friends of the institution. " The chief
object of the Institution will be to impart a thorough
English and practical education. Mathematics, pure
and applied, will be taught to those wishing to acquire
such knowledge, as extensively and as thoroughly as
in any of the American colleges. Latin, Greek,
French, and German will also be taught. A small
chemical apparatus and a few philosophical instru-
ments have been purchased and others will be bought
as occasion requires."
In 1865 the trustees regained possession of the
building, and in the fall of that year once more school
began, with Mr. J. A. Hancock as principal. The
school flourished, and very soon the enrollment was
150, a large school for the size of the place.
The school continued fairly prosperous, though other
schools were established in the city. Some seven or
eight small schools and two of equal grade with the
Academy were taught in different parts of the city
until 1879, when the citizens decided to adopt the pub-
lic-school system. Then the Academy became the
high school, and these small schools were city schools.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 309
Much has been added to the curriculum of the " Old
Academy," but the lovely old ladies who were the
graduates of the old school compare very favorably
with the " sweet girl graduates " to-day. Indeed, it
would be very difficult to equal the record made by
the women trained in the schools of the first half of the
nineteenth century, no matter what the equipment or
the methods, or courses of study.
The schools mentioned in these sketches are not all
the schools established for girls and women in the
Southern States, but they are a sufficient number, and
so widely scattered over the country that they will
show the estimate put upon the education of girls in
the Southern States before 1860, before modern sys-
tems were introduced.
310 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Early Schools in Virginia
NOTWITHSTANDING the oft-repeated and generally
received in some sections of our country statement
that the Virginia colonists were opposed to schools, the
very reverse is found to be true, as can be shown from
old records still extant. Of course they had their own
ideas concerning education; and being loyal English-
men, they had no desire to abolish the customs of the
mother country, or to ignore the teachings and tradi-
tions of their fathers. They were almost without ex-
ception loyal, devoted churchmen, whether they were
Christians or not, and as the church taught the doc-
trine that the education of children should be directed
by the church and not by the state, of course they did
not advocate free schools under state control.
Governor Berkeley's oft-quoted remark, " God grant
it may be many years before Virginia will have FREE
schools," when correctly quoted applies to free schools
and not to schools in general.
Schools for girls as well as for boys were established
in Norfolk, Williamsburg, Isle of Wight and other
places early in the seventeenth century; yet the usual
plan pursued was the employment of tutors, which was
necessary because of the distances between plantations
and from towns.
However, Boone in his " Education in the United
States " admits that within ten years after the settle-
ment of Jamestown arrangements were made to estab-
lish a college and a training school. A hundred labor-
ers were sent over and were at work on the building,
under the supervision of a superintendent appointed
for the special purpose, and a president was elected
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 311
Rev. Patrick Copeland. Also, in 1621, a preparatory
school was opened in Charles City.
All these plans were completely overthrown by an
Indian massacre which reduced the population from
10,000 to 8,coo, and deranged all the affairs of the
colony. This calamity alone prevented Virginia from
having the first college in the New World. After a
time, when the colony recovered from the shock of
this calamity, they renewed their efforts in behalf of
education, and schools for boys and girls were estab-
lished in all the towns, and free schools also. One of
the earliest of the free schools was established in Isle
of Wight, in 1655, and another in the same place in
1658. (Isle of Wight Records.) Notices of such
schools are found in Williamsburgh Quarterly, Vir-
ginia Gazette, and Isle of Wight Records. These
schools began about the middle of the seventeenth cen-
tury, and were established at intervals during the re-
mainder of that century and the next, and even in the
early part of the nineteenth century. They were en-
dowed, and this endowment was sufficient to meet the
demands. Both boys and girls were taught in these
schools. So far as the record shows, the earliest
schools exclusively for girls, of a higher grade than
primary, were established in Norfolk and Richmond.
Miss Whateley's Boarding School for Young Ladies
was established in Richmond in 1776. (Virginia
The following notice is given in " Richmond By-
Gone Days," p. 204: "Haller's Academy, 1798-99.
Haller was a Swiss or German adventurer who estab-
lished an academy for girls in Richmond. He em-
ployed good teachers; the teacher of French was
Monsieur Fremont, father of Col. J. C. Fremont of
Rocky Mountain fame."
During the latter half of the eighteenth century (the
exact date is not given) Mrs. Anne Maria Mead estab-
lished a boarding school for girls in Norfolk. This
became very popular, and most of the prominent Vir-
312 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
ginia girls as well as many girls from other States were
educated in this school. The school passed into the
hands of Mr. Le Fevre, the French teacher employed
by Mrs. Mead. Later Mr. D. Lee Powell had charge
of the same school ; then Mr. John H. Powell, and
some others. At the present day Mr. Charles Wil-
liamson has practically the same school.
Lynchburg was laid out in 1787, and very early in
its history began to give attention to education. The
Lynchburg Star publishes several notices of schools
very early in the nineteenth century, but does not men-
tion whether for boys or girls. However, in 1815
John and Sarah Pryor opened a school for girls, and
Mrs. Mary B. Deane also had a school for girls. The
same year Rev. William S. Reid, a Presbyterian min-
ister, established a school for girls of high grade. It
was extensively patronized, and continued for many
About 1820 Rev. Franklin G. Smith established the
Lynchburg Seminary, a school of collegiate grade. In
1832 or 1833 he took charge of a school in Columbia,
Tennessee, and then the school gradually declined.
About 1820 the Methodists, under leadership of
Bishop John Early, established the Buckingham
Female Collegiate Institute. It was very prosperous,
and continued many years.
There were some other schools whose names only
have been preserved, as Hayes's school for girls, which
was flourishing in 1843 date of establishment not
given. Miss Jane McKenzie's school was also a
flourishing school of this period. The sister of Edgar
Allan Poe attended this school early in the nineteenth
century. George Persico taught a popular school for
girls 1830-1840. These last mentioned were in Rich-
The interest in education so early manifested by the
people of Lynchburg did not grow dull, but rather in-
creased, and in 1829 the Misses M. A. and G. Gordon
opened a school for girls. In 1848 this school had so
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 313
increased that they built a large brick house for its
accommodation, and the name was changed to Lynch-
burg Female Seminary.
In 1836 Mrs. Botsford and Mrs. Kirkpatrick each
had a school for girls.
About 1850, or perhaps earlier, the Montgomery
Female College at Christiansburg was established, and
continued until closed by the War between the States.
None of these schools issued catalogues, or if they
did they have not been preserved, as none are now
extant. Therefore, it is impossible to give the curric-
ula or, any details of them.
Virginia Institute, Staunton, Virginia, 1833-1908
About 1833 or 1834 Mrs. Maria Sheffey "opened a
school which became in 1843 tne Virginia Female In-
stitute. The Episcopalians of Virginia deemed a
diocesan school a necessity, and this school was incor-
porated with a capital stock of $30,000 in shares of
$100 each. The corner-stone was laid in May, 1846,
the Masons and the Sons of Templars uniting in the
The early life of the Institute was not prosperous,
the cost of a suitable lot and the buildings far exceed-
ing the original estimate. The board sought relief
from this financial embarrassment through the Con-
vention of the Diocese of Virginia. New bonds were
issued, and the public-spirited men of Staunton con-
tributed liberally to this fund. Seven thousand dol-
lars was raised and the diocese became the chief stock-
The Rev. James McElroy and Mrs. Sheffey were the
first principals. Then Mr. B. B. Minor held the posi-
tion for a short time. In June, 1848, the position was
tendered to Rev. R. H. Phillips. In January, 1856,
it was thought best to rent the property to some one
who would become responsible for the management of
the school. Rev. R. H. Phillips assumed the respon-
314 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
sibility and continued in charge until July, 1861, when
the State of Virginia impressed the buildings for the
use of the deaf, dumb and blind pupils whose own in-
stitution in the town had been taken for a hospital.
The school was not opened again until the fall of
1865, when the buildings were restored after a petition
to the House of Delegates then sitting in Richmond.
Under the wise and judicious administration of Mr.
Phillips the school enjoyed a long season of prosperity.
In 1870 a wing was added to be used for a mus'ic
hall and studio. In 1874 Bishop Johns became presi-
dent of the board, and Bishop Whittle, vice-president.
Buring the next few years additions were made to
the property and modern improvements were intro-
In i$$, after a faithful service f twenty-nine years,
Mr. Phillips resigned on account of ill health, and on
the 3*th *f March, 1880, Mrs. Stuart, widow of Gen.
J. E. B. Stuart, was asked to take charge of the school.
For more than eighteen years she held the position, and
those who have been under her care know her wonder-
ful fitne c s for it. Born and reared on the frontier,
being the daughter of Gen. Philip St. George Cooke of
the old Army, her military bias is great, and her vari-
ous experiences during the War between the States,
as the wife of a Confederate general, gave her a
peculiar training in self-control, courage, and those
stronger qualities which make up noble character. By
a wonderful ability to read human nature and capacity
for choosing, she surrounded herself with women of a
very high order as teachers. It was her aim to secure
only those whose gentle qualities of mind and soul
might influence the young to develop the womanly
traits for which the Southern woman has always been
The Institute is not a college proper, but the solid
and faithful work done by it gives ample preparation
for a higher college course. However, a diploma from
the Institute means years of hard and faithful study.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 315
Bishop Whittle never signed his name to one unless
he was satisfied that it was merited. The Institute,
confers three diplomas one for a course in English
and Latin and one modern language ; one for English,
and one for music.
On February 16, 1898, the board met to consider
the renewal of Mrs. Stuart's lease for another term of
five years. This done, the important question of re-
modeling and adding to the building was discussed
and plans for raising the money on the property sub-
mitted and officially acted upon. The plan adopted
was to issue new bonds upon the property by first
mortgage, by taking up the old debt. The building
committee toc*k active steps toward the work decided
upon, and in April, 1898, the first ground was broken
for the new hall. The work went on through the
spring and summer, but the opening day of the fifty-
fifth session found it incomplete, and it was not until
Thanksgiving that the new dining-hall was used for
the first time, and the following Monday " Stuart
Hall " was opened with its new desks and many com-
Few institutions are so blessed in a board of trustees
and directors as Virginia Institute. These men are
among Virginia's strongest characters, spiritually and
intellectually. They embrace those foremost in church
and state, and have given generously of their time and
A great sorrow came upon the Institution, the
shadow of which cast a widespread gloom. Mrs.
Stuart was called to sustain the greatest loss possible
to her, in the death of her only daughter, who left
her the care of three small children, and after deep
and prayerful thought she decided she must give up
the work which she had for nineteen years carried on
so faithfully and successfully. She sent in her resigna-
tion, but the board refused to accept it. A meeting
was called April 4, 1899, but the business was so great
that it lasted until the evening of the 5th. Mrs.
316 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Stuart again sent in her resignation, which was ac-
cepted after due deliberation.
The school is well equipped, having twenty-one
teachers and four officers, the same faculty Mrs. Stuait
had with few exceptions. The buildings are four mas-
sive four-story brick buildings, heated by steam and
lighted with gas. They contain a chapel, large
gymnasium, well furnished with necessary apparatus;
ample music-rooms ; large class-rooms ; schoolrooms ; a
new auditorium with large stage, art studio, library,
The school organization consists of primary, aca-
demic and collegiate departments. The academic re-
quires three years, the collegiate four. In addition to
these courses, the Institute has the departments of
music, art, elocution and the commercial course; the
last consists of book-keeping, stenography, and type-
In the sixty-two years of its existence the
Institute has had only five principals, Mr. McElroy
and Mrs. Sheffey, associate principals, Mr. Phillips,
Mrs. Stuart, and Miss Maria Pendleton Duval, the
present incumbent. Miss Duval has proved a worthy
successor of the lamented Mrs. Stuart, and has fair
prospects for continued success.
(This sketch was prepared by Miss Duval. Only
a few items, taken from a catalogue sent by her, have
Mary Baldwin Seminary, S taunt on, Virginia, 1842-
The Valley of Virginia was settled by Scotch-Irish-
men, who are called in history " the most intelligent,
industrious, and best educated of the English-speaking
races." Thomas Carlyle says " a man's religion is
the chief fact in regard to him." The character of
these people is given in the statement that they were
mostly Presbyterians; and they built the church and
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 817
the schoolhouse side by side. It is not surprising then
to find a school for girls in this little settlement about
1796. It was taught by Mrs. McGlassau. Following
Mrs. McGlassau was Monsieur Labas and his wife,
who taught in " Hilltop," which afterward became a
part of the Seminary buildings. His successor, Mr.
Easterbrook, from New England, taught from 1820
to 1830 at Hilltop. He was well patronized, but for
some unknown reason went to Knoxville, Tennessee.
Following him came Mr. Thatcher, also from New
England. His school was so large as to require several
teachers, one of whom was Mrs. Sarah Mosby Taylor,
teacher of drawing and painting. She was a former
pupil of Mrs. McGlassau. Mr. Thatcher's closing ex-
hibitions were the delight and talk of the town. In
1833 Mr. Robert L. Cook, at the request of the Pres-
byterians, opened a successful boarding-school, the
boarders being accommodated in private houses.
These schools were taught in private or rented houses.
In 1840 the Presbyterians, with a view to establish-
ing a permanent school, bought from Mrs. David W.
Pattison a brick-yard near the church, leveled and
sodded the ground, planted trees, and enclosed it with
a neat paling fence, but did not build a schoolhouse.
In 1842 Rev. Rufus Bailey, assisted by his wife and
two daughters, inaugurated the Augusta Female Semi-
nary, with neither lot nor building nor funds. Both
schoolroom and board were furnished by Mr. William
Craig in the Peck house on Greenville avenue. That
same year a plan or constitution of the Augusta Female
Seminary was adopted, the first article of which reads,
" The founders of this Institution design it to afford
the means of a thorough literary and religious educa-
tion to the female youth of this portion of our coun-
try." The board of fifteen trustees worked to such
purpose that on June 15, 1844, tne corner-stone of the
main building was laid. Dr. B. M. Smith delivered
the address, and Rev. Francis McFarland, president of
the board, and Rev. R. R. Howison, pastor-elect of the
318 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Staunton Church, offered prayers. Within the stone
were placed The Staunton Spectator; a copper plate
inscribed with the names of the trustees, officers and
pupils, the architect, stone-cutter, mason and carpenter ;
the Holy Bible, wrapped in oil silk, with the super-
scription, " The only rule of faith, and the first text-
book of the Augusta Female Seminary." The pupils
numbered sixty, one of whom was Miss Mary Julia
Baldwin. Board was $8 and $9 a month, and tuition
fees $100 and $130 for a session of ten months; music
was $20 a session, while French, drawing, and paint-
ing were $10 each.
From 1849, when Dr. Bailey resigned, until 1863 the
principals of the Seminary were Messrs. Matthew and
Campbell, Miss Reinnelles, and Messrs. Browne, Mar-
quis and Tinsley. About the time Mr. Tinsley resigned
Mrs. Elizabeth McClung, a sister of Dr. Archibald Al-
exander, visited her son-in-law, Mr. J. A. Waddell. She
wished with her daughter, Miss Agnes, to exercise
their mutual gift for business, so their host proposed
they should invite Miss Baldwin to join them and take
charge of the Seminary. They repudiated the scheme
as preposterous, despite the promise of twenty
boarders, the assurance that Miss Baldwin's peculiar
skill in managing young girls would win pupils, and
the fact that experienced teachers were easily obtained.
The trustees met and elected Misses McClung and
Baldwin joint principals and Mrs. McClung matron.
In the midst of the War between the States friends
arose on all sides, and gave or loaned all necessary
furnishings. Tuition fees were paid in flour ($25 a
barrel), bacon ($i a pound), or in corn meal, beef,
potatoes, sorghum molasses, and wood. Whenever
the cry " The Yankees are coming ! " was made, the
schoolgirls gleefully hid the cord wood in the cellar,
the hams in the desks and stoves, and arrayed the flour
barrels as toilet tables in voluminous white petticoats.
The first session under Misses McClung and Bald-
win there were 25 boarders and about 75 day scholars.
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 319
Miss Baldwin taught, and was assisted by Misses E. E.
Howard, Emma and Julia Heiskell, M. Alansa Rounds,
and Prof. Joel Ettinger. The distinguished Dr.
W. H. McGuffey, of the University of Virginia, as-
sisted Miss Baldwin in devising a course of study,
meanwhile assuring her she was choosing too high a
standard to ever make the Seminary a popular institu-
In 1893 a few of the full graduates met at the re-
quest of Mrs. Elizabeth Andrew Hill of Georgia (class
of 1879-80), and formed a temporary organization
with Miss Nannie Tate as president, Mrs. Hill, secre-
tary, and Mrs. McCullough, historian. Then the glad
reunion was held in 1894, the jubilee year of the Semi-
By an Act of the Legislature of Virginia, passed
during the session of 1895-96, at the request of the
board of trustees, the name of the institution was
changed from Augusta Female Seminary to Mary-
Baldwin Seminary, as an acknowledgment of their
high appreciation of the valuable services and unparal-
leled success of the principal for "thirty- four years.
To the original Seminary building and the chapel,
which was the old church, Miss Baldwin added by pur-
chase and construction " Hill-Top," " Brick House/'
" Sky-high," and sundry smaller buildings, making this
establishment one of the most extensive and pleasant
colleges in the Southland.
The buildings are lighted with gas and furnished
with modern conveniences and heating apparatus. The
equipment includes a gymnasium and swimming-pool,
a well-selected library, well-furnished studio, forty
music-rooms, and a laboratory for chemical and phys-
The course of study is divided into primary, prepar-
atory, academic and university departments. The plan
of the last department is that of the University of
Virginia, modified only so far as to adapt it to the
peculiar requisites of the education of women. The
320 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
course of study is divided into schools, each constitu-
ting a complete course on the subject taught. The
school of business training consists of book-keeping,
stenography and typewriting.
The degree of Bachelor of Music is given to the
graduates of music. The degree B. A. is conferred
on those who satisfactorily complete the university
An event in the session of 1895-96 was the death of
"Uncle Chess," Chesterfield Bolder, who once be-
longed to Miss Baldwin's grandfather, and was the
faithful mail-carrier and guardian of the grounds for
twenty-five years. He was eighty-eight years old, and
will descend into history on the strains of the Seminary
song in the verse ending, " His last words were ' Pretty
tol'ble ; mail, mum/ '
Miss Baldwin controlled the Seminary for a full
generation, and at the time of her death she was edu-
cating " her grandchildren," the daughters of her
One hundred teachers and officers have been asso-
ciated with the school, and thousands of pupils, mostly
from the Southern States, are scattered widely. Some
are missionaries in distant lands, many are earnest,
faithful teachers, many more are useful daughters and
sisters, happy wives and mothers, and each and all
have tender memories of the school days spent under
Miss Baldwin's care at the Mary Baldwin Seminary.
(This article was compiled from a sketch of " Au-
gusta Female Seminary," prepared by Mrs. McCul-
lough for the alumnae meeting of 1894, published in
the Record of the Alumnae Association, and kindly
sent by Miss Weimar, the present principal.)
Hollins Institute, 1842-1908
The question as to the best location of a boarding-
school for girls is one to which much attention has been
given in recent years. After an experience of two cen-
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 821
turies on this continent the general conclusion has
been reached that country localities, easily accessible
to cities, are decidedly preferable from many consider-
ations. This school has these advantages. It is lo-
cated in Roanoke County, Virginia, seven miles from
the city of Roanoke, and one and one-half miles from
Hollins Station on the Norfolk and Western Railway.
Roanoke County lies in the extreme southwestern sec-
tion of the great valley of Virginia, between the Blue
Ridge and Alleghany Mountains.
The Institute owns a tract of five hundred acres,
and the buildings are so located that they are excluded
from the annoyance of close proximity to public thor-
oughfares. About eighty years ago the premises now
'held by the Institute were improved and equipped
with a view to render available valuable mineral waters.
In 1842 the whole property was purchased for educa-
tional purposes, and since that time has been so used.
All the original buildings have been removed, and
others better adapted to school purposes erected. The
main buildings (of which there are six) are of brick,
and contain ample accommodations for a large school.
They are modern in structure and furnished with all
the conveniences of the best homes.
This school opened its first session in the spring of
1842, under no distinctive name. It was known as the
" School of Botetourt Springs," and was conducted
in the interest of both boys and girls. Subsequently,
as it continued to grow in strength and numbers, it
was called " The Valley Union Seminary." For ten
years it prospered on the original plan, and during that
period sent forth many young men who became promi-
nent in business and professional life. It was under
the control of a joint stock company. In the year
1851, both departments being filled with pupils, the
company determined from various reasons, the control-
ling one being inadequacy of accommodations, to sus-
pend the department for boys, or transfer it to another
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
The most potent reason for continuing this school
for girls only arose from the fact that there was at
that time no chartered institution for girls in all Vir-
ginia, city or country no institution with elaborate
and systematic courses of study.
The session of 1852-53 opened for girls only, with
broad and elevated courses of study. The accommo-
dations were soon all rilled, and since that time the
school has continued to prosper. The fact that girls
from many parts of Virginia eagerly entered school
and took advanced courses of study, many of them
from uncultured homes, had a startling effect ; for it
demonstrated the fact that the people were in advance
of their leaders on the question of higher education
This school continued to overflow with pupils. In
1855 Mr. John Hollins of Lynchburg, a gentleman of
wealth, inspired by his pious wife, Mrs. Anne Hollins,
proposed to the company having charge of the prop-
erty to place the entire enterprise in the hands of a self-
perpetuating board of trustees. The company acceded
to this proposition, and Mr. Hollins placed at their dis-
posal the sum of $5,000 for further improvements.
Soon after this arrangement was made Mr. Hollins
was stricken with paralysis, from which attack he
never recovered. Mrs. Hollins continued the friend
of the school, and made several handsome donations,
and would doubtless have endowed it at her death had
not her investments been totally swept away by the
results of the War between the States.
Until 1870 the school was sustained by Virginia
patronage alone. Since that time it has drawn pupils
from other States, about twenty being represented.
In 1846, while holding a professorship in Richmond
College, Mr. Charles Lewis Cocke was invited to take
charge of Valley Union Seminary. The school at
that time was in great financial difficulties, but under
Mr. Cocke's management its halls were soon filled
with students of both sexes, and so continued until
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 323
1852. By that time Mr. Cocke and his coadjutors be-
came convinced that co-education was not the best
way of conducting a school. When the board of trus-
tees decided that the school was thenceforward to be
for one sex only, the question arose, for which? and
then Mr. Cocke, seeing the opportunity for realizing
the aspiration of his early youth, threw all the weight
of his influence in favor of making it a school for the
higher education of women. The speed with which
all the rooms available were at once occupied by eager
and enthusiastic students, the numerous applicants for
admission, necessitating enlargement of accommoda-
tions every year, all demonstrated how accurately Mr.
Cocke had discerned the supreme need of the young
women of Virginia.
The original scheme of instruction and standard of
graduation have been maintained during its whole
career. The doors of this institution have never been
closed, not even during the War between the States;
indeed, at no time in its history were its rooms so
crowded as in the stern time of war. When nearly all
the schools were closed, Hollins, from its secluded situ-
ation, was supposed to be a safe retreat from the rav-
ages of war, and proved an asylum to refugees from
Maryland and Washington, D. C., and the eastern
parts of Virginia.
The establishment and the great success of this
institution were due to the efforts of Charles Lewis
Cocke, who, after graduating at Richmond College,
entered Columbian College, Washington, D. C., from
which he graduated with the degree of Master of Arts.
Immediately after his graduation he was elected pro-
fessor of mathematics in Richmond College. On De-
cember 31, 1840, he was married to Miss Susanna
Pleasants, fifth child of Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Pleasants
of Picquenocque, Henrico County, Virginia. Profes-
sor Cocke remained with the Richmond College un-
til 1846, when he was invited to take charge of Valley
Union Seminary, a co-educational institution. Pro-
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
fessor Cocke's management soon filled the halls with
students, and so continued until 1852, when Rollins
Institute was established.
At the regular meeting of the board, on June 2,
1900, after due deliberation, the board decided to make
a deed and convey the real estate and premises owned
by the board to Charles L. Cocke and the legal repre-
sentative of Charles H. Cocke, or to such corporation
as they may designate. They also transferred to the
grantee, in the deed mentioned, the right to use the
title " Hollins Institute."
The General Assembly of Virginia, during its ses-
sion for 1901, granted a new charter to the corpora-
tion known as Hollins Institute, and in pursuance of
the foregoing resolutions a deed was executed grant-
ing and conveying to the new corporation premises,
property, and franchises formerly held by the " Trus-
tees of Hollins Institute." Under this new charter,
Hollins Institute is empowered to hold funds and prop-
erty to the amount of $300,000. Extensive and costly
improvements have been made, wholly, however, by
private means, and the school is finely equipped.
Instruction is offered in the following departments:
English, Latin, Greek, French, German, history and
political economy, moral science, the English Bible,
mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, botany,
physiology and hygiene, music (pianoforte, voice cul-
ture, organ, violin, theoretical studies), art (drawing,
painting, history of art), elocution and physical cul-
ture, stenography, typewriting, and bookkeeping.
These departments are separate and distinct, each con-
ducted by a professor, with such assistance as may be
demanded. Each department being distinct, the pupil
may, at her option, become a candidate for graduation
in any one or all of them.
The degree conferred is A. B. A certificate of dis-
tinction is given after satisfactory examination in any
study in which the student does not receive a certificate
of proficiency or a diploma. A certificate of proficiency
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 325
is given after satisfactory examination upon certain
special studies, either not included in the course for
diploma, or upon certain portions of the regular de-
partments. A diploma is awarded after satisfactory
examinations of the prescribed course. The presi-
dent's medal for scholarship is awarded to a student
of the regular collegiate department who has three
senior classes, and has maintained the highest stand in
daily recitation and examinations, and who has a gen-
eral average of 90 per cent.
The two literary societies are Euzelian and Eupian.
The Euzelian Society founded the Euzelian Scholar-
ship in 1896, designed to assist deserving but needy
students in attaining higher training in English and
other branches of a liberal course of instruction. The
Eupian Scholarship was founded in 1900, for a simi-
For many years the societies had charge of the li-
brary, and maintained it. In 1882 the alumnae asso-
ciation permanently established it for the school at
large. It is self-supporting, dependent on the fees
paid by the students. The reading-room is under the
same management, and is provided with newspapers,
literary, religions, and scientific magazines, among
which are French, German, and British periodicals.
(The material for this sketch was obtained from the
catalogue of 10,04-05, and from the Hollins Quarterly,
both sent by Miss Helen Steiner of Montgomery, Ala-
bama, a student in Hollins Institute.)
Rowlings Institute, Charlottesville, Virginia,
The Albemarle Institute, now Rawlings Institute,
was established in 1857 by the Albemarle Association
(Baptist), chiefly through the efforts of Prof. John
Hart and Dr. A. E. Dickinson. In 1875 Prof. R. H.
Rawlings purchased a three-fourths interest in the
property and conducted the school successfully for a
326 HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
number of years. In 1897 Mr. Rawlings donated his
interest in the property to the Baptist denomination,
through trustees named by him. These trustees pur-
chased the remaining interest and now hold the prop-
erty in trust for the denomination.
The course of study is divided into two departments,
preparatory and collegiate. In the latter there are ten
distinct schools besides the departments of music, art,
elocution, physical culture, and stenography and type-
writing. Each student may select one or more of
these by advice of parent or guardian. The time re-
quired for graduation in each of these varies from two
to four years, depending upon the qualifications of the
pupil at time of entrance. Graduation in eight of the
ten schools is required for the degree of M. A.
The degrees are scientific, literary, B. A. and M. A.
Diplomas are conferred upon all pupils who have
passed successfully both intermediate and final exam-
inations of any of the several schools, or have com-
pleted the prescribed courses in music, physical culture,
and elocution departments.
Special arrangements have been made whereby
young ladies may take exactly the same work at the
Institute and stand, on the same day, the same exam-
inations as the University of Virginia in the B. A.
courses in Latin, French, German, Italian, and Span-
ish. The examination papers will be submitted to the
University authorities and passed upon by them, and
a certificate signed by the professor given to the suc-
Five gold medals are given by the Institute, viz. :
scholarship, piano, voice culture, art and physical cul-
ture, and elocution medals.
The Browning Medal is given by Dr. J. H. Brown-
ing of Charlottesville, Virginia. It will be awarded
to the pupil who shall make the highest general average
on class-work and examinations in the department of
elocution, on subjects of lung gymnastics, and physiol-
ogy and physical culture. The candidates for this
OF WOMEN IN THE SOUTH 327
medal will be required to submit essays on some rele-
vant subject assigned by the teacher.
A system of annual scholarships and half scholar-
ships has been established. The emoluments of these
are $60 and $30 per year. The donors of these make
the gifts every year or every year for a specified time.
Appointment is made by the donor or by the president.
Two of these scholarships are now available The
Dr. W. B. Gray Scholarship, established by Dr. W. B.
Gray of Richmond, Virginia, in memory of his wife.
Emoluments, $60 a year. Appointment by donor.
Also the Alphonso and Virginia Carver Scholarship,
established by Mr. T. P. Carver of Charlottesville,
Virginia, in honor of his children whose names it bears.
Emoluments, $60 a year. Appointment by the presi-
There have been started a series of permanent
scholarships, only one of which has been fully estab-
lished. Messrs. Bedford Glascock, George B. West.
B. F. Johnson, and Z. H. Rawlings, donors.
The equipment consists in part of a commodious and
well-equipped gymnasium and art hall, music-rooms, a
reading-room, and a chapel.
(This sketch has been prepared from catalogues.)
Martha Washington College, Abingdon, Virginia,
This college was projected by the Odd Fellows, in
1859, but before the buildings were completed they
transferred the property to the Virginia Conference,
Methodist Episcopal Church South, and the school was
organized in 1860 as a Conference school, with Rev.
W. G. Harris president. The first board of trustees,
in part, were Messrs. G. W. L. Litchfield, M. Hoof-
naugh, T. G. McConnel, E. Longley, and Judge N. I.
Campbell. The first diplomas were granted to the
class of 1863.
The school was closed two or three years during the
HISTORY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
War between the States, but was opened to pupils
again in 1865, with Rev. W. G. Harris president
He retained the position until his death, and was suc-
ceeded by his daughter, Miss Mattie Harris.
This school was commenced so short a time before
the great upheaval, it can scarcely be classed with the
old schools of the South ; but its very existence is only
another evidence of the interest taken by Southern
people in the higher education of women, long before
other sections aroused to the importance of this work.
The school continues. It is a modern school with all
modern equipments and ideas.
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